The different peoples and the different circumstances with which our race has come in contact, have had many results - one among others, that of presenting us with contributions to our vocabulary. Kelts were found in England ; and hence we have a number of Keltic words in our vocabulary. The Romans held the island for several hundred years ; and when they had to go in the year 410, they left behind them a few Latin words, which we have inherited. In the seventh century, Augustine and his missionary monks from Rome took over a larger number of Latin words; and the Church which they founded introduced even more and more words from Rome. The Danes began to go over to England in the eighth century ; there was for some time a Danish dynasty seated on the throne of England; and hence there are many Danish words. The Norman-French invasion in the eleventh century took over many hundreds of Latin words ; for French is in reality a branch of the Latin tongue. The Revival of Learning in the sixteenth century gave us several thousands of Latin words. And wherever English-speaking sailors and merchants have gone, they have brought back with them foreign words as well as foreign things - Arabic words from Arabia and Africa, Hindustani words from India, Persian words from Persia, Chinese words from China, and even Malay words from the peninsula of Malacca.
The words we have received from the Spanish language are not numerous, but they are important. The following are a few of them :Alligator, Armada, Barricade, Battledore, Bravado, Buffalo, Cargo, Cigar, Cochineal, Cork, Creole, Desperado, Embargo, Filibuster, Flotilla, Gienade, Guerilla, Indigo, Merino, Mosquito, Mulatto, Negro, Octoroon, Quadroon, Renegade, Savannah, Tornado, Vanilla.
Italian literature has been read and we owe to the Italian language a large number of words. The following are a few of the more common ones: Alarm, Alert, Alto, Balcony, Bandit, Bankrupt, Bravo, Brigade, Brigand, Bust, Cameo, Canteen, Canto, Carnival, Cartoon, Cascade, Citadel, Concert, Cornice, Corridor, Cupola, Ditto, Domino, Folio, Fresco, Gazette, Granite, Guitar, Incognito, Influenza, Lava, Madonna, Malaria, Manifesto, Motto, Moustache, Niche, Opera, Pantaloon, Pianoforte, Piazza, Portico, Ruffian, Serenade, Sonnet, Soprano, Stanza, Studio, Tenor, Trombone, Umbrella, Vista, Volcano.
The Dutch are a great seafaring people and have given us a number of words relating to the management of ships. The following are a few words which we owe to the Netherlands :Ballast, Boom, Boer, Hoy, Luff, Peef, Skates, Skipper, Sloop, Smack, Smuggle, Yacht, Yawl.
It will be interesting to note a few words which come directly from the Latin :
Antecessor, Benediction, Cadence, Captive, Conception, Coffin, Corpse, Debit, Dilate, Example, Fabric, Faction, Fact, Fidelity, Fragile, Gentile, History, Hospital, Legal, Master, Mint, Nutriment, Oration, Particle, Pauper, Penitence, Persecute, Quiet, Radius, Regal, Respect, Secure, Senior, Separate, State, Tract, Tradition, Zealous.
Also that the following come to us from the Latin through the French :
Ancestor, Benison, Chance, Caitiff, Conceit, Coffer, Corps, Debt, Delay, Sample, Forge, Fashion, Feat, Fealty, Frail, Gentle, Hotel, Loyal, Mr., Money, Nourishment, Orison (a prayer), Parcel, Poor, Penance, Pursue, Story.
A very large number of discoveries in science have been made in this century ; and a large number of inventions have introduced these discoveries to the people, and made them useful in daily life. Thus we have telegraph and telegram ; photograph ; telephone and even photophone and megaphone. The word dynamite is also modern. Then passing fashions have given us such words as athlete and (esthete. In general, it may be said that, when we wish to give a name to a new thing - a new discovery, invention, or fashion - we have recotirse not to our own stores of English, but to the vocabularies of the Latin and Greek languages.