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The Home Cyclopedia Of Business and Commerce | by Charles Morris



Practical Helps In Grammar - Spelling And Composition - Les-Sons In Penmanship With Model Copies - Forms For All Kinds Of Business Paper - Money And Banking - Bookkeeping Practically Illustrated - How To Use Figures Quickly - Business Law - A Vocabulary Of Common Business Terms. A Practical Business Instructor And Guide

TitleThe Home Cyclopedia Of Business
AuthorCharles Morris
PublisherW.E. Scull
Year1902
Copyright1902, W.E. Scull
AmazonHome Cyclopedia of Necessary Knowledge

Book II

The Home Cyclopedia Of Business And Commerce

Prepared And Edited By Professor E. C. Mills, Practical Penman And Author Of Numerous Books For Business Colleges, Rochester, N. Y.

Professor R. S. Collins, Head Of Department Of Penmanship And Bookkeeping, Peirce Business College, Philadelphia, Pa.

and Other Specialists.

ONE OF THE GREATEST INDUSTRIES OF THE WORLD

One Of The Greatest Industries Of The World

The raisine of cotton and the spinning and weaving of the raw material into cloth, is one of the greatest industries or the world. This picture shows the interesting process of spinning. The winding frames show how the cotton is drawn out into threads and wound on bobbins ready for weaving.

-Our Mother Tongue
Language has a history just as the living being who uses it. It has gone through periods of change and development which correspond to the many changes in the history of the race from the few words or...
-Curious Changes in Language
Our language has grown; it is growing still; and it has been growing for many hundreds of years. As it grows it loses something, and it gains something else; it alters its appearance; changes take pla...
-The Family of our English Language
Our English tongue belongs to the Aryan or Indo-European Family of languages. That is to say, the main part or substance of it can be traced back to the race which inhabited the high table-lands that ...
-The Grammar of the Language
Was fixed before the seventeenth century, most of the case-endings having entirely van-vanished. The vocabulary of the language, however, has gone on increasing, and is still increasing; for the Engli...
-The Vocabulary Increased
When the Angles or English went over to the British Isles in the fifth century, the number of words in the language they spoke was probably not over two thousand. Now, however, we possess a vocabulary...
-How Strange Words Come In
The different peoples and the different circumstances with which our race has come in contact, have had many results - one among others, that of presenting us with contributions to our vocabulary. Kel...
-The English Language for Ten Centuries
We can mark out a few guide posts in the path of ten centuries traversed by our language each distinguished by a great event. A reference to any good History of England will give the reader particular...
-The Grammar of the English Language
Whatever may be said of the English language in other respects, in simplicity it undoubtedly surpasses the rest of European tongues. It is free from intricacies of case, declension, mood, and tense. I...
-Parts of Speech
Having traced briefly the history of our language, considered some of the sources from which it is derived, and noted its chief characteristics, we shall now proceed to treat of its words, viewed with...
-About Sentences
All written or spoken language arranges itself into sentences which are described as assemblages of words which make complete sense ; as, God is love. Every sentence consists of two parts, subject...
-Mistakes in Grammar
When words are used in improper forms, as seen for saw, and done for did, or when the use of one word is confused with that of another, we say that the user is ungrammatical and ignorant. A m...
-How to Use Capital Letters
It is of the greatest importance that the Capital Letters be used correctly and in accordance with some fixed rules, or otherwise the manuscript will have a very untidy appearance, and confusion in me...
-Use of Punctuation Marks
Punctuation may be called the art of dividing written language by points, in order that the relations of words and clauses may be plainly seen, and their meaning be readily understood. In spoken lang...
-Helps in Spelling
No rules fully meet the requirements for satisfactory helps in spelling, as all rules have exceptions. Frequent reference to the dictionary and careful observation of words which occur in daily readin...
-How to Write Clearly
Almost every one can learn to write cleariy - that is, so that his meaning may be clear - so far, at least, as clearness depends upon the arrangement of words. Elegance, force and variety of Style are...
-How to Write Forcibly
This is a swift age. There is no time for reading long and tedious communications. To command attention, our ideas must be expressed forcibly, and at the first reading must carry conviction. No better...
-The Use of Figures of Speech
The English is a figurative language, that is, it is a language in which an idea is expressed by the use of words which may suggest something else than the literal meaning. Unconsciously we use these ...
-Practical Lessons In Using The Pen
By E. C. Mills, Rochester, New York, Practical penman. The time has arrived when good penmanship is more of a necessity than an accomplishment. But a few years ago many believed good writers were bor...
-Practical Lessons In Using The Pen. Part 2
How to Begin You may now take the position of the hand and arm as shown in the illustration 2, without the use of the pen. By holding the hand in the correct position before taking the pen an easy ...
-Practical Lessons In Using The Pen. Part 3
Many have learned to write an excellent hand while sitting in a poor position, but they certainly could have accomplished much more and with greater ease during the same time had they learned to sit i...
-Vertical Writing
As vertical writing has been very popular in different sections of the country during the past few years, it has been thought advisable to give also instruction and practice in this style of writing. ...
-Speed in Writing
After the student has a good knowledge of form and can write all the letters with a reasonable degree of speed, it has been found advisable to practice on copies for speed work alone. Take a sentence-...
-What Is Money
Francis A. Walker, a distinguished authority, defines money as that which passes freely from hand to hand throughout the community in final discharge of debts and full payment for commodities, being ...
-Gold and Silver Money
In the United States the dollar is the unit of value, and is equal to 23.22 grains of pure gold. Therefore, when we say that an article is worth so many dollars we mean it is worth so many times as mu...
-Paper Money
There is another medium of exchange not having any value in itself, but representing the credit of the government. It is, in fact, a form of promise to pay, and for that reason it is often called f...
-Money of the British Empire
Great Britain in actual circulation has the gold sovereign (value $4.8665) and half-sovereign ; the silver crown (value $1,087), half-crown, shilling (value $0,217), six-pence, four-pence, and three-p...
-Money in Foreign Lands
Germany has a gold standard, and the mark, whose value is $0.208, is the unit of value. The 5-mark piece is the smallest gold coin. The 5-mark, 2-mark, 1-mark, 1/2-mark, and 1/5|-mark pieces are the s...
-Banks and Banking
Banks, both national and private, offer another means of exchange. Any one having money deposited in a bank to his credit may give to a third party an order on the bank for any number of dollars and c...
-Utility of Bank Accounts
This leads us to consider the advantages of keeping an account at bank. (1) There is the safe keeping of the money, and protection from loss by burglary. (2) It is an easy way of collecting. If the b...
-How to Open an Account at Bank
A bank will not open an account with any one who may desire it. The depositor is expected to obtain an introduction to the officers of the bank by some one who is well known to them, and to satisfy th...
-Checks
A Check is a written demand, which is addressed to a bank by a person who has money deposited therein for the payment of a part or the whole of his money to a third party. The Heading, the Order to p...
-When to Balance Pass Books
At short intervals, the pass book should be left at the bank for settlement. The bookkeeper will enter, on the page opposite the deposits, the amounts of the checks that have been paid by the bank, an...
-Checks are Good Receipts
It is evident that money is placed in a bank for safe-keeping, and that the bank becomes responsible for it. Therefore no part of it will be paid out without a check or written order of the depositor....
-How Checks are Certified
In many transactions, involving the transfer of a large amount of valuable property for cash, an ordinary check is not satisfactory to the person who is parting with his property, for he is not sure t...
-Drafts and Bills of Exchange
A draft, or bill of exchange, is, in fact, a letter written by one person to another living in a different place, requesting him to pay a sum of money to the order of the drawer or to a third person. ...
-Due Bills
A Due Bill is a formal written acknowledgment that a certain amount is due. Due Bill for Money. $200 60/100. HoHokus, N.J. ,July 15, 1900. Due Charles Stillman, on demand, Two Hundred Dollars, valu...
-Promissory Notes
A promissory note is a written promise to pay a specified sum of money at a designated time, both of which are stated in the body of the note. The holder is the person who is in lawful possession of ...
-Discounting Note at Bank
When notes are offered at bank they are passed upon by its officers or directors, or both,to satisfy themselves that the maker and indorsers are good for payment. If accepted the bank charges interest...
-Indorsements, a Summary
Indorsements are entries written on the back of any paper, whether checks, notes or drafts. They show either a transfer of title, a giving of security, or a receipt for a payment applying on the contr...
-Receipts
A Receipt is a written acknowledgment, signed by the receiver and delivered to the giver, showing that certain property (money or goods, or both) has been received. RENTAL RECEIPT. Every word whi...
-Lease - Form A
This Agreement, Made between.................----........................R. B. Congdon................................................ of the County of-.............New Castle............-.........an...
-The Department Store
THE DEPARTMENT STORE The Department Store is one of the earliest and greatest combinations of many business enterprises under one management. These stores, as their name implies, have many depart...
-Business Correspondence
Great importance attaches to business correspondence, for a large part of the world's business is done through the mails or by telegraph. To facilitate the handling of so much mail it is important tha...
-Practical Points for the Correspondent
Abbreviations Use only authorized abbreviations, and attempt no short cuts of your own. Consult a dictionary when in doubt. Do not say Phil. for Philadelphia, or G'n't'n for Germantown. Use ...
-Practical Bookkeeping. The Science Of Accounts
Bookkeeping is both a science and an art. It is based upon custom and utility, the principles of which have been formulated into general laws, which have been adopted throughout the business world. In...
-The Books Used in Single Entry Bookkeeping
The different books used in bookkeeping will be learned as we follow the forms given on the succeeding pages. The three important ones are: The Cash Book. This is used to show all receipts and paymen...
-Single Entry Bookkeeping
Single entry bookkeeping is simple, and is generally adopted by shop people and small concerns who deal in a great variety of articles and where the sales are small and numerous. This method affords s...
-Cash Book
190 Dr. Cr. April 2. 5. 26. To H. F. B., Note, Sundries, 4000.00 500.00 500.00 April 5. 15. 24. 30. By Interest, S. Conrad, Expense, Balance, (in red) ...
-A Trial List Of Transactions
The following items will be found written up in the Day Book, Cash Book, Ledger, Bills Receivable and Bills Payable Books of succeeding pages. They should be care-fully traced through the respective b...
-The Ledger
As the story of each transaction is told in the Cash Book, Day Book, or Bills Receivable Book, the Ledger does not furnish a history of each transaction ; therefore less space will be required, and bo...
-Day Book - Single Entry
Sometimes called Journal. Dr. and Cr. indicate the left and right aide of Ledgar to which the different items are dosted from Day Book. Ledger Folio is at the left. Dr Cash- FOLIO DATE IN LEDGE...
-Bills Receivable
NUMBER FOLIO ON WHOSE ACCOUNT DATE TIME DUE AMOUNT OF BILL 16 17 18 1 2 3 Jones & Co. A. Daniel Bowers & Co. Jan. 3 Jan. 5 Jan. 5 3 mos. 2 mo...
-Bill Book
The above are two pages of a separate book known as the BILL BOOK. In this, under Bills Receivable are entered in regular order, the notes and paper which the owner receives in the course of business....
-The Journal - Double Entry
Each item must be entered twice in the Ledger. Hence the name double entry. The Journal provides for this by a double column for dollars and cents, one representing the Dr. and the other Cr. entry in ...
-Ledger - Double Entry. Continued
Folio 20 Dr. Jones & Co. Cr. Jan. 3 To Merchandise 1 144 80 Jan. 3 By Bills Receivable 1 72 40 C...
-Ledger-Double Entry 16
Folio 33 Dr. General Expense Cr. Jan. 6 To Cash 21 64 June 30 By Sundries 252 52 April 8 160 00 ...
-Ledger - Double Entry
June 30, 19 -Balance Sheet- Dr. ,r. FOLIO IN LEDGER BALANCE AS PER LEDGER FOLIO IN LEDGER BALANCE AS PER LEDGER 10 Cash on Hand 2,550 ...
-Explanation - Double-Entry Book-Keeping
In the single-entry bookkeeping, it will be remembered, there is only one record, whereas in double-entry each item appears twice, once as debit and again as credit; also in the former, cash, stocks, ...
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: A
Acceptance Agreeing to the terms proposed; the acceptor's name written on the face of a bill of exchange or draft, usually with the word Accepted. Accommodation Paper - Notes or acceptances drawn ...
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: B
Balance Of Trade The difference between the value of our commercial imports and exports. Bankrupt One unable to pay his debts, and takes advantage of the bankrupt law. Bear A person whose interes...
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: C
Call Loans Money loaned subject to the call or demand of lender. It must be returned the day it is called for before the close of banking hours. Capital The investment in business. Cash Sales The...
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: D-E
Days Of Grace Negotiable promissory notes or bills of exchange, payable at a certain time, are in most places entitled to three days' delay beyond the time expressed, which are called days of grace. ...
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: F-L
Falling Market A continuous decline in prices. Favor A note, draft, or check is drawn in favor of the party to whom it is made payable; a letter. Fee Simple The absolute ownership of real estate....
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: M-R
Margin Money or collaterals deposited with a broker to protect contracts. Mortgage The written pledge of real estate or chattels to secure payment. Negotiable A term applying to commercial paper,...
-Vocabulary Of Business Terms: S-Z
Sinking Fund A sum of money set apart for the redemption of the debts of a corporation or government. Solvent Able to pay one's liabilities. Spot Cash A term applied to a sale of goods to be paid...
-Rapid Calculations. Quickness In Figures
Book-keepers, bank clerks and others who have constant calculations to make need to be both expert and rapid. There are many short cuts practiced which every person should know, and a few of the most ...
-Rapid Calculations. Practical Applications
Practical Applications To find the value of any number of articles at 75 cents each, say 248 yards of cloth at 75 cents a yard, deduct one-quarter of 248 from it, and call the remainder dollars. At ...
-Rapid Calculations. Quickness In Figures. Part 3
Board Bills, Day or Week. The following tables will also answer for calculating the amount of wages by the week or month of hired girls, servants, etc., who are compelled to labor on the Sabbath ; be...
-Rapid Method for Counting Interest
The method of reckoning interest generally used by the best accountants and book-keepers is what is known as the sixty-day method. By this method 360 days are rec-oned as a year and 30 days as a month...
-Table Showing How Many Days a Note Has to Run
The following table will be found very useful to book-keepers in calculating the number of days a note has to run : - -TO-------- FROM ~ , v ^ ^ J . . January.................365 31 59 90 1...
-Every-Day Law. Important Usages And Practices
Points of Criminal Law Law should be, and is intended to constitute, a rule of right governing the actions of man in his dealings with his fellow-beings. You cannot lawfully condone an offense by re...
-Important Points of Business Law
The law compels no one to do impossibilities. An agreement without consideration is not valid. Ignorance of the law does not excuse an offender, but it does often influence the mercy of the Court in...
-Contracts and Agreements
A contract or agreement is where a promise is made on one side and assented to on the other, or where two or more persor-s enter into engagement with each other by a promise on either side. In a writt...
-Copartnerships
Partnerships may be either general or special. In general partnerships money invested ceases to be individual property. Each member is made personally liable for the whole amount of debts incurred by ...
-Interest Laws and Statutes of Limitations
Intbrest Rate. Statutes of Limitations. States and Territories. Legal Rate. Rate Al-lowed by Contract. Alabama............ per ct. 8 per ct. 8 20 ...
-Agents and Attorneys
An agent or an attorney is one authorized by a person to act for him and in his stead, in the transaction of business for the person appointing said agent or attorney. In regard to the subject of an ...
-Landlord and Tenant
Leases for one year or less need no written agreement. Leases for more than a year must be in writing ; if for life, signed, sealed, and witnessed in the same manner as any other important document. ...
-Laws Governing Liens
In all the States and Canada it is the object of the law to protect the mechanic and laboring man and also the merchant. Hence there are laws in the several States for this purpose. While the general ...

The Home Cyclopedia Of Necessary Knowledge

Embracing Five Books In One Volume

Book I. The Home Cyclopedia Of General Information

Book II. The Home Cyclopedia Of Business

Book III. The Home Cyclopedia Of History

Book IV. The Home Cyclopedia Of Cooking And Housekeeping

Book V. The Home Cyclopedia Of Health And Medicine










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