THE above illustration shows the following unfavorable conditions for the speaker.

1. If in the day-time, the light in the hall, coming wholly from windows in the rear of the speaker, throws a shadow whereby his face cannot be seen.

2. If in the night, the unshaded lights, in the vicinity of the speaker, upon which the audience are compelled to look, will pain the eyes and divert attention of the hearers.

3. The disordered condition of maps, pictures, etc., upon the wall will annoy and hold the attention of some auditors who have large order and are keenly sensitive to disorder.

4. The holding of the manuscript by the speaker, in front of his face, will break the magnetic connection between himself and hearers, and then the audience will become listless and inattentive.

5. The balustrade and table in front of the speaker prevent the effect that may be exerted upon an audience by gesture and posture of the lower limbs.

6. The seating of a small audience in the rear of a hall gives an empty appearance to the room, alike depressing to speaker and hearers.

7. The scattering of an audience apart breaks magnetic conditions that are favorable to a speaker when the audience is seated closely together and near the platform.

8. Members of the audience communicating one with another, reading newspapers, moving about the room, or going out, make conditions unfavorable to the speaker and those who would listen to the discourse.

Emotion, Feeling, and Agitation are varying results of true oratory, and are produced by the eloquence of the speaker. Emotion is a mental excitement, inducing pity, grief, fear, joy, enthusiasm, or other natural passions. Feeling applies to a sympathetic condition of either mind or body, and is manifested with less excitement than emotion. Agitation is the violence of intense excitement, arising from physical or mental disorder.

Logic is the art of reasoning systematically upon any subject, and embraces its cause, progress and effect. "Pure logic" is the formal expression, governed by general rules, of any idea that may present itself. "Applied logic " is the application of this method and these rules to any specific topic on which an argument is proposed. Logic was first used as a form of reasoning by Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher, who, indeed, gave form and character to the principles and practice of public speaking.

Aristotle divided oratory into three classes, as follows:

The Demonstrative, which embraces praise in a high degree, as eulogies of great men; censure, reproach, or severe accusation against individuals, the acts of public bodies, or of governments; philosophic addresses, etc.

The Deliberative, which includes debates on subjects of national or district importance, in the halls of legislation or other public places, educational or moral lectures, etc.

The Judicial, which relates to the oratory of the courts of justice, where cases are pleaded or defended under the rules of current law practice.

All of these class-es admit of the purest and most brilliant elocutionary efforts. Aristotle also classified rhetoric into three distinct parts - per-suasion, expression, and arrangement. In persuasion, the orator presents himself, his motives, and the object of his discourse, in a persuasive attitude, with the design of obtaining the confidence of his hearers. In ex-pression he treats of the arguments to be advanced in support of his object, and in this division he exemplifies the use of logic as a means of making his arguments clear and strengthening them. In arrangement, he teaches the proper method of presenting the argument, arranging propositions in the most effective manner, delivering them in appropriate language, and enforcing them with suitable and impressive gestures.

Disadvantages In Public Speaking 516