Occupations of the People in the United States During 1870 and 1880,

According to Last Census,

Showing The Number Of Persons Engaged In The Different Vocations, And The Increase And Decrease Of The Number During The Ten Years

OCCUPATION.

Number in 1870.

Number in 1880.

Increase in 10 Years.

Agriculture laborers ..........................

.2,885,996.

....3,323,876.

.....437,880

Apiarists....................................

.......137

....1,016.

..........879

Dairymen and dairywomen ....................

.....3,550

......8,948

......5,398

Farm and plantation overseers ..................

.....3,609

.........3,106.

...Decrease

Farmers and planters .........................

..2,977,711.

...4,225,945.

......1,248,234

Florists ....................................

...1,085.

...4.550.

......3,465

Gardeners, nursery and vine-growers.............

.....32,547

...51,482.

......18,935

Stock-drovers ...............................

........3,181.

...3,449.

.......268

Stock-herders ...............................

. ......5,590.

....24,098.

.....18,508

Stock-raisers ...............................

...6,588.

...16,528.

......9,940

Turpentine farmers and laborers ................

......2,478

...7,450.

...........4,972

Others in agriculture .........................

...........

....45.

............

Total engaged in agriculture....................

.... 5,922,472.

..7,670,493

.....1,748,022

Professional And Personal Services

Actors .....................................

.....2,053..

....4,812..

...2,759

Architects ..................................

....2,017.

...3,375..

...1,358

Artists and teachers of art......................

....4,071..

...9,104..

...5,033

Auctioneers ................................

....2,260..

...2 331 .

.....65

Authors, lecturers and literary persons............

....846.

... .1,131.

.....285

Barbers and hair-dressers. ......................

...24,794..

......44,851..

..... 19,057

Billiard and bowling saloon-keepers ..............

...1,220.

......1,543

.......323

Boarding and lodging-house keepers...

...12,785.

....19,058.

...6,273

Chemists, assayistsand metallurgists...............

......608..

...1,969..

...1,361

Clergymen. .................................

...43,874 .

...64,698..

...20,824

Clerks and copyists. ..........................

..6,138

.....25,467

.....19,329

Clerks in government offices ...................

.....8,672

...16,849 .

...8,177

Clerks in hotels and restaurants ..................

...5,243 .

.....10,916..

...5,673

Collectors and clain agents .....................

......693..

.....4,213 .

....3,520

Dentists. ...................................

.....8,505 .

. . .12,314..

...3,809

Designers and draughtsmen ....................

...934..

...2,820 .

...1,886

Domestic servants ...........................

.975,734 .

.1,075,653

.....99,919

Employes of charitable institutions. ..............

...848.

...2,396..

.....1,548

Employes of government. ......................

...14,407. .

...31.401..

....16,994

Employes of hotels and restaurants....

. .23,438..

. ....77,413

.....53,975

Engineers (civil) .............................

..7,374.

...8,261 .

.......887

Hostlers ....................................

..17,586..

.....31,697

... 14,111

Hotel keepers ...............................

...26,390. .

.....32,453

.....6,063

Hunters, trappers, guides and scouts...

...1,111..

....1,912..

.......801

Janitors .....................................

...1,763 .

......6,763 .

....4,994

Journalists ..................................

....5,286. .

...12.308..

.....7,022

Laborers (not specified) .......................

.1,032,853. .

.1,859,223

.. 826,370

Launderers and lanundresses ...................

...60,906 .

....121,942..

....61,036

Lawyers....................................

...40,736..

....6.4,137..

...23,401

Livery stable keepers .........................

...8,504..

...14,213..

...5,709

Messengers .................................

....8,717.

....13,985. .

......5,268

Midwives ..................................

...1,186.

....2,118..

...932

Musicians (professional).......................

..1,610..

...30,477..

...28,867

Nurses .....................................

..10,976..

...13.483..

...2,507

Officers of army and navy .....................

..2,286..

...2,660..

.......374

Officials of government .......................

..44,743 .

...57,081..

...12,338

Physicians and surgeons ......................

...62,445

.....85,671..

...23,226

Restaurant keepers ...........................

..35,185..

...13,074..

...Decrease

Sextons ....................................

..1,151..

...2,449..

.....1,298

Showmen and showwomen .....................

....1,177..

...2,604..

...1,427

Soldiers and sailors of V. S. army and navy.........

.23,338.

.....24,161..

....823

Teachers and scientific persons .................

.128,160.

.. ..227,710..

.. ..99,550

Veterinary surgeons ..........................

...1,166.

....2,130.

....964

Watchmen (priate) and detectives ...............

..........

...13,384..

..........

Whitewashers ...............................

...2,873.

...3,316..

....443

Other professions ............................

..........

...4,570..

..........

Total professional and personal serv's............

.2,684,793

...4,074,238..

.1,389,445

Manufacturers And Mining

Agricultural implement makers..............

... 13,811..

......4,891..

...1,080

Apprentices to trades ......................

....15,302..

......44,170.

.......28,868

Artificial-flower makers ...................

....1,169..

......3,399..

...2,230

Bag makers ..............................

.........866..

....1,408..

......542

Bakers .................................

.......27,680..

......41,309.

......13,629

Basket makers ..........................

....... 3,297

.....5,654..

...2,357

OCCUPATION.

Number in 1870.

Number in 1880.

Increase in 10 Years.

Blacksmiths...............

. ....141,774.

.. 172,726

.......30,952

Bleachers, dyers and scourers ......

..... 4,901.

.......8,222.

.........3,321

Blind, door and sash makers ....................

......5,155.

........4,946.

.....Decrease

Boatmakers.................................

.......2,101.

......2,063.

.....Decrease

Bone and ivory workers.........

....... 208.

...1,888.

........1,680

Bookbinders and finishers........

...... .9,104.

....13,833.

........4,729

Boot and shoe makers .........................

.....171,127

...194,079

.......22,952

Bottled and mineral water makers................

...........

...2,081.

............

Box-factory operatives ........................

.......6,080.

....15,762.

........9,682

Brass founders and workers .....................

..........4,694.

....11,568

........6,874

Brewers and malsters .........................

......11,246

...16,278.

........5,032

Brick and tile makers ..........................

.......26,070.

...36,052.

........9,982

Bridge builders and constractors .................

..........1,029.

...2,587.

........1,558

Britannia and japanned ware makers..............

.......1,092

. ..1,375.

.........283

Broom and brush makers ......................

.......5,816.

...8,479.

........2,663

Buiders and contractors ........................

.......7,511

....10,804

.......3,293

Butchers ...................................

......44,354.

....76,241.

......31,887

Button-factory operatives ......................

..........1,272.

.....4,872

........3,600

Cabinet makers ..............................

......42,835.

....50,654

........7,819

Candle, soap and tallow makers .................

.......1,942

...2,923.

.........981

Ca makers ..................................

........2,228

...4,708.

........2,480

Carpenters and joiners .........................

.....344,996

....373,143.

......28,147

Carpet makers...............................

......15,669

.... 17,068.

........1,399

Carriage and wagon makers .....................

...... 42,464.

........49,881.

........7,417

Charcoal and lime burners......

..... .3,834.

......5,851

........2,017

Cheese makers ...............................

.......3,534

......4,570.

........1,036

Chemical works employes .....................

...........

....2,923.

............

Cigar makers ................................

......28,286

.....56,599

......28,313

Clerks and bookkeepers in manufactories ..........

........5,861

....10,114.

........4,283

Clock and watch makers.....

........1,779.

....13,820.

.......12,041

Confectioners ...............................

.......8,219

. ..13,692.

.....5,473

coopers .....................................

......41,789

....49,138

........7,349

copper workes ...............................

.......2,122.

.....2,342.

........220

Corset makers............

...........

.....4.660.

............

Cotton mill operatives .........................

.....111,606

....169,771.

......58,165

Distillers and rectifiers ........................

.......2,874

... ...3,245.

.....371

Employes (not specified)......

......20,242

.....34,536 .

......14,294

Engineers and firemen .........................

......34,233.

.....79,625

.....45,392

Engravers ...................................

.......4,226

......4,577

.....351

Fertilizer establishment operatives ...............

........ 316

......1,383.

....1,067

File makers, cutters and grinders...

...... 1,413

.........1,839.

....426

Fishermen and oystermen.......

......27,549.

.....41,352.

...13,803

Flax-dressers.............

.......1,046.

.....1,894

....848

Fur-workers .................................

.......1,191

.....1,580

.....389

Galloon, gimp and tassel makers .................

.......569

...2,235.

....1,666

Gas works employes ...........................

.......2,086.

...4,695.

....2,609

Gilders .....................................

.......1,534

.....1,763

........229

Glass works operatives ........................

.......9,518

....17,934

....8,416

Glove makers ................................

.........2,329.

...4,511 .

....2,182

Gold and silver workers .......................

.....18,508

.. 28,405.

....9,897

Gun and lock smiths ..........................

......8,184

...10,572.

....2,388

Hair cleaners and dressers ......................

.........1,026..

....1,965

.......939

Harness and saddle makers .....................

......32817

...39,960.

......7,143

Hat and cap makers ...........................

......12,625..

...16,860.

....4,235

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives ..............

....... 3,633..

....12,194

....8,561

Iron and steel works and shop operatives ..........

......86,203.

...114,539

.....28,336

Lace makers .................................

...........

.....1,708

............

Lead and wire works ..........................

...........

.....2,105

............

Leather case and pocket book makers .............

...........

.....1,347

............

Leather curriers, tanners and finishers.............

......30,678.

...29,842.

.............

Lumbermen and raftsmen ......................

......17,752

....30,651

....12,899

Machinists ..................................

.......54,755

.. 101,130.

...46,375

Manufactures ................................

..... ..42,877

..44,019.

....1,142

Marble and stone cutters ......................

.......25,831

..32,842.

....7,011

Masons, brick and stone .......................

.......89,710

.. 102,473.

.....12,763

Meat and fruit preserving employes ..............

.........770

....2,860.

....2,090

Meat packers, curers and picklers ................

.......1,164

.......3,436.

......2.272

Mechanics (not specified) ......................

......16,514

....7,858.

.. Decrease

Mill and factory operatives .....................

......41,619

...30,836.

..Decrease

Millers .....................................

.....41,582..

...53,440.

...11,858

Milliners, dress makers and seamstresses ..........

......92,084

...285,401.

...193,317

Occupations of the People of the United States During 1870 and 1880 - continued,

According To Last Census, Showing The Number Of Persons Engaged In The Different Vocations, And The Increase And Decrease Of The Number During The Ten Years

OCCUPATION.

Number in 1870.

Number in 1880.

Increase in 10 Years.

Miners ................................

...152,107

.. 234,228.

...82,121

Mirror and Picture frame-Makers ...........

......970.

...2,503.

....1,533

Nail Makers ............................

.........

...5,803.

..........

Officials of man'f'g and mining companies ...

......2,720.

...8,198.

....5,478

Oil mill and refinery operatives .............

......1,747

.....3,929

....2,182

Oil-well operatives and laborers ............

........3,803.

...7,340.

....3,537

Organ makers ...........................

......667

...2,437.

....1,770

Painters and Varnishers ...................

....85,123.

.. 128,556.

.....43,433

Paper hangers ..........................

........2,490.

...5,013.

....2,523

Paper mill operatives ....................

...12,469

...21,430.

....8,961

Pattern makers ..........................

...3,970.

...5,822.

....1,852

Photogrpahers, etc.......................

...7,558.

...9,990.

....2,432

Pianoforte makers and turners ..............

...2,535.

...5,413.

....2,878

Plasterers ..............................

...23,577

...22,083.

Decrease

Plumbers and gasifitters ...................

...11,143

...19,383.

....8,240

Potters ...............................

...5,060.

...7,233.

....2,173

Printers, lithographers and stereotypers .....

....41,073.

.......72,726.

........31,653

Print-work operatives .....................

....3,738

.....5,419

....1,681

Publishers of books, maps and newspapers ...

....1,577

...2,781.

....1,204

Pump makers ...........................

........1,672.

...1,366.

Decrease

Quarrymen .............................

...13,589..

....15,169.

....1,580

Quartz and stamp mill laborers .............

.....617

...1,449.

.....832

Rag pickers ............................

......436.

...2,206.

....1,770

Railroad builders and contractors ...........

...1,292..

...1,206.

Decrease

Roofers and slaters .......................

....2,750

...4,026.

....1,276

Rope and cordage makers .................

.......2,675..

...3,514.

.....839

Rubber-factory operatives .................

...3,886..

...6,350.

....2,464

Sail and awning makers ...................

...2,309.

...2,950.

............641

Salt makers ............................

........1,721..

...1,431.

Decrease

Saw and planing-mill operatives ............

....47,298

....77,050

29,752

Sawyers ...............................

.......6,939..

...5,195.

Decrease

Scale and rule makers ....................

.........416..

.....1,027

611

Screw makers ...........................

......780.

.....1,361

581

Sewing-maching factory operatives ..........

.......3,881.

.....2,725

..Decrease

Sewing-machine operators ................

.......3,042..

...7,505.

....4,463

Shingle and lath makers ...................

.......3,788.

...5,166.

....1,378

Ship carpenters, caulkers, riggers, etc........

...21,074.

...17,452.

..Decrease

Shirt, cuff and collar makers ...............

....4,080.

...11,823.

....7,743

Silk-mill operatives ......................

....3,256.

....18,071

...14.815

Starch makers ...........................

......229.

...1,385.

....1,156

Stave, shook and heading makers ...........

....1,858.

...4,061.

....2,203

Steam-boiler makers .....................

.......6,958.

...12,771.

....5,813

Stove, furnace and great makers ............

....1,543

...3,341.

....1,798

Straw workers ..........................

.......2,029..

...4,229.

....2,200

Sugar makers and refiners .................

......1,609..

...2,327.

.....718

Tailors and tailoresses ....................

..161,820

.. 133,756.

Decrease

Thread-mill operatives ...................

.........

...3,259.

..........

Tinners and tin-ware makers ...............

..30,524

...42,818.

...12,294

Tobacco-factory operatives ................

..11,985

...20,446.

...8,461

Tool and cutlery makers ...................

...5,351

...13,749.

....8.398

Trunk and valise makers ..................

...2,047..

...3,013.

.....966

Umbrella and parasol makers ..............

...1,439

...1,967.

.....528

Upholsterers ...........................

...5,736

...10,443

....4,707

Wheelwrights ...........................

..20,942

...15,592

Decrease

Wire makers and workers .................

......1,834..

....7,170.

....5,336

Wood choppers ........................

......8.338..

...12,731

....4,393

Wood turners, carvers, etc .................

...7,947

...12,964

....5,017

Woolen-mill operatives ...................

..58,836

...88,010

...29,174

Others in man'f'g and mining industries ......

...8,270

...13,542

....5,272

Total manufacturing and mining ............

2,707,421

.3,837,112

...1,129,691

Trade And Transportation

Agents .............................

......10,499..

..18,523..

...8,024

Bankers and brokers ...................

...........10, 631..

...15,180..

,...4,549

Boatmen and watermen ..............

...................

...20,368..

... Decrease

Brokers (commercial)................

.............

...4,193...

...........

OCCUPATION.

Number in 1870.

Number in 1880.

Increase in

10 Years.

Canalmen ...................................

..... 7,338

4,329.

.....Decrease

Clerks in stores ..............................

....254,359

353,444.

...99,085

Clerks and bookkeepers in banks .................

..... 7,103

10,257

....3,154

Clerks and bookkeepers in express comp's..........

.......767

1,856

....1,089

Clerks and bookkeepers (insurance) ...............

.....1,568

2,830.

.......1,262

Clerks and bookeepers (railroad) .................

.....7,374

.....12,331

.......4,957

Commercial travelers ..........................

.....7,262

..28,158.

...20,896

Dealers (not specified) .........................

....101,271

. 112,842.

.......11,571

Dealers in agricultural implements ................

.....1,939

1,999.

........60

Dealers in books and stationery ..................

.....3,392..

4,982

.......1,590

Dealers in boots and shoes ......................

.....7,019

9,993.

.......2,974

Dealers in cabinet ware .........................

.....4,087

7,419.

.....3,332

Dealers in cigars and tobacco ....................

.....8.234

11,866.

.......3,632

Dealers in clothing ............................

.....7,595

10,073.

.......2,478

Dealers in coal and wool .......................

.....6,636

10,871.

.......4,235

Dealers in crockery, china, glass, etc ..............

.....1,701

2,494.

.......793

Dealers in drugs and medicines ..................

.....1,765

2,373.

.........608

Dealers dry goods, fancy goods, etc ...............

....17,309

..,27,704.

......10,395

Dealers in gold, silver and jewellery ...............

....40,953..

..45,831.

.......4,878

Dealers in gold, silverware and jewelry ...........

.....6,786.

2,305.

.....Decrease

Dealers in groceries ............................

....74,410

.101,849.

......27,439

Dealers in hats and caps ........................

.....3,375

4,809.

......1,434

Dealers in ice .................................

.....1,464

2,854

......1,390

Dealers in iron, tin and copper wares ..............

.....9,003

..15,076.

.......6,073

Dealers in junk ...............................

...........

3,574

............

Dealers in leather, hides and skins ................

.....2,261

2,382.

.........121

Dealers in liquors and wines ....................

....11,178

13,500

.......2,322

Dealers in live stock ...........................

.....7,723

12,596

....4,873

Dealers in lumber .............................

.....9,440

11,263

...1,823

Dealers in marble, stone and slate ................

..........

1,405

.....Decrease

Dealers in music and musical instruments..........

......848

1,906.

....1,058

Dealers in newspapers and periodicals .............

.....1,455

2,729.

....1,274

Dealers in oils, paints and turpentine ..............

......986

1,940.

........954

Dealers in paper and paper stock .................

...........

1,862

.....Decrease

Dealers in produce and provisions ................

.....9,337

..35,129.

...15,792

Dealers in real estate ..........................

.....8,933.

..11,253.

....2,320

Dealers in sewing mathines .....................

....13,152..

6,577.

....3,425

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc ................

...120,756..

.177,586.

...56,830

Employes and officials of trad'g and trans, co's ......

.....4,152..

9,702.

.......5,550

Employes of banks, (not clerks) ..................

..424..

1,070

.........646

Employes and officials of express comp's..........

.8,629..

..13,004.

....4,375

Employes of insurance comp's (not clerks).........

.11,611..

..13,146.

....1,535

Employes in warehouses .......................

...........

5,022..

.....Decrease

Employes of railroad comp's (not clerks)..........

...154,027..

236,058.

......82,031

Hucksters and peddlers.........................

....34,337

53,491

...19,154

Milkmen and milkwomen .......................

.....3,728..

9,242.

....5,514

Newspaper criers and carriers ....................

.....2,002..

3,374.

.......1,372

Officials and employes of trading and trans, c .......

..... 976..

9,702.

....8,726

Officials of banks .............................

....2,738

..4,421.

.......1,683

Officials of insurance companies .................

.....762

1,774.

....1,012

Official of railroad companies ...................

. 1,902..

2,069.

.....167

Officials and employes of street railway co's .......

5,191..

11,925.

....6,734

Officials and employes of telegraph co's ..........

.8,579..

22,809

.........14,230

Officials and employes of telephone co's ...........

..........

..1,197.

.....Decrease

Packers ....................................

.1,894..

4,176.

.......2,282

Piolets .....................................

.3,649..

3,770.

.........121

Porters and laborers in stores, etc .................

3,513..

..32,192.

...28,679

Sailors ......................................

. 56,663..

60,070.

...3,407

Salesmen and saleswomen ......................

.14,203..

..72,279.

......58,076

Saloon-keepers and bar-tenders ..................

.14,362..

..68,461.

...54,099

Shippers and freighters .........................

.3,567..

5,166.

....1,599

Steamboat men and women .....................

.7.975..

..12,365.

....4,390

Stewards and stewardesses ......................

. 1,245..

..22,803.

.....21,558

Toll-gate and bridge keepers ....................

2,253..

..2,303.

.......50

Undertakers .................................

.1,996 ..

..5,113.

...3,117

Weighers, gaugers and measurers .................

926..

..3,302.

...2,376

Others in trade and transportation ................

...........

177.

............

Total trade and transportation ...............

1,191,238.

1,810,256.

....618,018