This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
As Illustrated by Drawings Prepared Expressly for this Work.
FOR THE purpose of setting clearly before the student in elocution and oratory the gesture, posture, and expression of face ap-ropriate to the delineation of an emotion or thought of the mind the accompanying illustrations are given.
They are prepared by us from attitudes representing Prof. Walter C.Lyman, a teacher of elocution and voice culture in Chicago, who has graduated from his classes many superior readers, several of whom have been successful in attracting to themselves upon the stage much attention, because of their faithful rendition of character.
Following these fourteen illustrations, representing the Professor in various attitudes, are twelve representations by Miss Mamie T. Short, of Chicago, a pupil of Professor Lyman's.
ALL the muscles of the features, limbs and body are relaxed; the eyes assume a mild and quiet expression; the brow is expanded and unwrinkled; the arms and hands hang idly by the side; one foot is slightly advanced, but the body rests lightly upon both; the voice is natural and cheerful, as illustrated in the following example:
Ladies and Gentlemen - In compliance with the request of the publishers of this work, I herewith submit to you the following illustrations as representations of the gesture, posture and facial expression, indicative of the emotion, thought, or sentiment, which may stir the heart under varying circumstances.
Weeping - Violent Grief.
THE head droops, inclining to one side; the eyes overflow with tears; the lips and countenance are drawn downward; the body inclines forward; the hands are wrung; the lower limbs are relaxed and retiring; the movements are slow, and the voice low, unless the grief is excessive, and the breath comes and goes with agitation, broken by moans and sobs.
Example - "Oh, my sorrow is more than I can bear!
A few hours more I would have clasped them to my heart. Alas, that the storm should rise when they, in glad anticipation, were so near their haven, and so near the husband's and father's arms!" of the face, when actuated by passion, sentiment, or emotion. To the multitude of students in the field of elocutionary study, these examples from life will be invaluable as giving needed instruction in this important art. An interesting study is found in the contrasts of the appearance of the individual when representing these various sentiments and emotions.
While Dignity expresses manhood in its self-possessed and energetic mood, Fear cringes and shrinks, and trembles, and the two serve to show the effect of inward emotions upon the outer man. Expectation displays eagerness, hope and forwardness of purpose, while Horror reverses the pose and the expression, with shrinking, repulsive movements. Supplication exhibits desire and humility, while Despair indicates the absence of all emotions but one - the sense of loss in its most extreme form. Other contrasts are shown in the following:
IN this illustration, representing the emotion of Love, the whole being is subdued, the head and body inclining forward; the forehead is tranquil; the eyebrows droop; the eye sparkles with affection; the palm of the right hand is pressed over the heart, and the left hand, with open lingers, is folded over the right wrist; the lower limbs stand together in easy position, with the right foot in advance; the voice is low and musical, and often there is an air of melancholy thought.
Example - "I love you, Margery dear, because you are young and fair, For your eyes' bewild'ring blueness, and the gold of your curling hair. No queen has hands that are whiter, no lark has a voice so sweet, And your ripe young lips are redder than the clover at our feet. My heart will break with its fullness, like a cloud o'ercharged with rain, Oh! - tell me, Margery darling, how long must I love in vain?"
THE height of enthusiasm, the wildness of Madness or insanity, the struggle going on within, are manifested in this character. The head is dishevelled and uneasy; the arms and hands are moved about - now pressing the head, now thrown convulsively from it. Every movement of the body is irregular, rapid and reckless: the eves, with fear-ful effect, turn uneasily from object to object, dwelling on none; the countenance is distorted, and the world is a blank.
Madness - Insanity.
Example - "Mark how yon demon's eyeballs glare. He sees me; now, with dreadful shriek, He whirls a serpent high in air. Horror! the reptile strikes its tooth Deep in my heart, so crashed and sad. Aye, laugh, ye fiends, I feel the truth, Your work is done - I'm mad! - I'm mad !!"
THE head is either erect or thrown slightly back, in Laughter and Mirth; the forehead is smooth; the eyes are partly closed and full of cheerful expression, sometimes filled with tears of joy; the mouth is open and extended; the shoulders are elevated; the elbows are spread, the hands resting on the sides of the body below the waist; and the voice is loud and joyous in tone. Should the mirth, however, be inward and silent, the form is convulsed with emotion, as in the expression of grief.
Laughter - Mirth.
Example - " So he took me for a Priest, did he? Ha! Ha!! Ha!!! Ha!!!! Couldn't he tell the difference between a saint and a sinner?
Ha! Ha!! Ha!!: Ha!!! I Why, that man don't know the difference between his heels and his head,
Ha! Ha!! Ha!!! Ha!!I!"
FIRST, in Horror, the head is thrown forward, then upward, and then drawn back; the eyes, with fierce expression, stare wildly at the object; the countenance is distorted and affrighted; the form is contracted and half-turned away from the object; the lower limbs droop and are slightly thrown apart; the elbows are thrust out from the body; the hands are raised and open, with the palms outward, while the fingers seem contracted; and the voice is an excited half-whisper.
Example - " Which of you have done this?
Unreal mockery, hence!"