This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
Unusually Large Marks are used to Distinctly llustrate Punctuation,
The period (.) is used at the end of every sentence, even if it be but one word; as, Bank. Merchant Tailor. John Smith. William Jones, Dealer in Hats, Caps and Furs. The period is also used to show the omission of letters, at the last of a name or word, called abbreviation; as Co. for Company; H. J. Smith for Henry James Smith. In the abbreviation of Chas., Wm., Thos., Jas., Robt., Bros., and Saml., while the rule is to use the apostrophe, it is customary to use the period.
The comma (,) is used, in sign painting, to show the omission of words. This is shown in the following sentences:
Brown and West and Co. are Dealers in Paints and Oils and Glass, and so forth.
To avoid repeating the and we use the comma, thus:
Brown, West & Co., Dealers in Paints, Oils, Class, & c.
The apostrophe (') is used to show the omission of letters, in the beginning or middle of a word, thus: 't is for it is; 't were for it were;
JOHN SMITH. JOHN HENRY SMITH.
J. H. SMITH. JOHN H. SMITH. CHARLES SMITH. HENRY JONES.
C. SMITH & H. JONES.
SMITH & JONES.
'73 for 1873; comp'y for company; pack'g for packing; d's for days; m's for months; y's for years; gen'l ag't for general agent, etc.
The apostrophe is also used to show the possessive, thus: Brown's Bank. If the owner's name terminates with an s, the apostrophe follows the s; as, Wells' Bank, Briggs' Store. If two or more persons are spoken of, in the possessive, the apostrophe follows the s; as, Ladies' Entrance; Gents' Parlor; Tomlinson Brothers' Bank. If, however, the person's name takes the character of an adjective, describing the article, no apostrophe is required; as, Briggs House; Merchants Bank.
This character (&) stands for and, and came originally from Et., Etc. in script, the Latin abbreviation for et cetera - " and the rest." The first is used in connecting firm names, and the other at the end to avoid details. Thus, Smith & Brown; or Smith, Brown & Co., Dealers in Groceries, Provisions, & c.
Where the placing of a period or other mark, after a letter or figure, would decidedly injure the appearance of the same, good taste may suggest that such mark be omitted. See Nos. 44 and 42, next page.
For other marks in punctuation, see page 52.
A light faced letter Is used In the following advertisements, to Illustrate the punctuation conspicuously.
FIRE & MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY,
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
CAPITAL, - $200,000.
OFFICERS: J. Hartley Wells, Pres't. David Briggs, Sec'y.
S. & J.
FRESH AND SALT MEATS.
FIRST NATIONAL BANK.
PROF. A. B. COOK.
DR. HENRY WING.
SAML. H. SMITH, M.D.
FIRE INS. COMP'Y.
A. M. EXPRESS CO.
AMERICAN PACK'G CO.
JONES BROS., WEST & HOYT.
PAGE BROS.' BLOCK.
WELLS, WADE BROS. & COOK.
Mc MICKEN & St. CLAIR.
St. CLAIR BROS.' EXCHANGE.
MEN'S AND BOYS' CLOTHING.
BENNETT & PETERS.
STOVES AND HARDWARE.
SMITH, JONES & BLACK.
HARDWARE, CUTLERY, ETC.
MRS. WM. HENRY WEST.
MILLINERY AND FANCY GOODS.
C. CLINTON BROWN,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELOR.
DeLAND & McGANN.
44 BROWN BROTHERS. 44
42 BRAINARD'S SONS. 42
C. S. BELDON, CLARK & CO.
F. BURT, SHAW & SONS,
REAL ESTATE AND LOAN AG'TS.
St.CLAIR BROS. & SONS, GEN'L AGENTS.
D. O. WELLS, BRIGGS & SONS,
AG'TS N. W. MANUF'G CO.
BOOTS AND SHOES.
H. O. SMITH,
HOYT & WEBSTER,
PAINTS, OILS, GLASS, ETC.
WILLIAMS & CO.,
HATS, CAPS, FURS, ETC.
BRIGGS, WELLS & CO.,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN
JONES, COX & CO.,
MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN
HARDWARE, CUTLERY AND STOVES;
ALSO, GEN'L AG'TS FOR
AURORA SILVER-PLATE MANUF'G CO.
WEBB & GREEN,
GEN'L AG"TS FOR THE
N. W. MANUFACTURING COMPANY;
AND DEALERS IN
R. R. SUPPLIES, PIG IRON AND LEAD.
FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE.
WESTERN INSURANCE COMPANY;
PAID-UP CAPITAL, $2,000,000 IN U. S. BONDS.
CHARLES D. SMITH, Agent.
A. E. Small. P. D. Cook.
SMALL' & COOK,
Attorneys and Counselors at Law; room 15, stevens block,
OffIce HoURs]9 to 12jA.M. MILWAUKEE.
NORTHERN LIGHT, NO 8;
FRIDLEY, St. ANNE & BROTHER,
PATENTED, AUG. I, 1870. RE-ISSUED, SEPT. 10, 1872.
SHNIEDEWEND, LEE & CO., ELECTROTYPERS;
Labor-Saving Slugs, Metal Furniture, and Superior Finished Leads.
NO. III E. MADISON ST., CHICAGO, ILL.
St. CLAIRE & Mc CLURE,
Successors to HATCH BROS.;
HEADQUARTERS FOR THE
"COSMOPOLITAN," "STEWART," AND "WESTERN HOME," COOKING STOVES.
NO. 44 MAPLE ST., ST. LOUIS, MO.
PUSH ALONG ! KEEP MOVING !
Address P. O. 3ox 1,108, or Call at 91 Peck Ave.,
BLACK BROS. & CO., WHOLESALE CLOTHING HOUSE;
GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS AND FURS. 70 Broadway, up stairs, ST. CROIX, ILL.
The Largest Gents' Furnishing House in the "World.
OAK HALL CLOTHING EMPORIUM, Nos. 148, 150, 152 and 154 Prindle St.
HOWARD'S LARGE OVEN, Air-Tight, Summer and Winter Cooking Stove.
PAT'D MAY 4, 1871.
OSCAR D. HOWARD.
engravers' inscriptions, representing wording and punctuation. 513