This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
The uniform of the army, and the quantity and kind of clothing issued annually to the troops, are prescribed by the President.
The officers of the West Point Academy consist of a superintendent, a commandant of cadets, a senior instructor of artillery tactics, a senior instructor of cavalry tactics, a senior instructor of infantry tactics, a professor and an assistant professor of civil and military engineering, a professor and an assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy, a professor and an assistant professor of mathematics; one chaplain, who is also professor of history, geography and ethics, aided by an assistant professor; a professor and an assistant professor of chemistry, mineralogy and geology, a professor and an assistant professor of drawing, a professor and an assistant professor of the French language, a professor and an assistant professor of the Spanish language, one adjutant, one master of the sword, and one teacher of music.
The superintendent, the commandant of cadets and the professors are appointed by the President, and the assistant professors, acting assistant pro-fessors and the adjutant are officers of the army, detailed to such duties by the Secretary of War, or cadets (students) assigned by the superintendent, under the direction of the Secretary of War.
The superintendent and commandant of cadets may be selected, and all other officers on duty at the Military academy may be detailed from cavalry, infantry or artillery; but the academic staff (as such) is not entitled to any command in the army, outside of the academy. The superintendent and the commandant of cadets, while serving as such, have, respectively, the local rank of colonel and lieutenant-colonel of engineers.
The commandant of cadets has the immediate command of the battalion of cadets, and is the instructor in the tactics of artillery, cavalry and infantry.
The supervision and charge of the academy is vested in the War Department, under such officers, or officer, as the Secretary of War may assign to that duty.
Leaves of absence are granted by the superintendent, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War, to the professors, assistant professors and other officers of the academy for the entire period of the suspension of the ordinary academic studies, without deductions from their respective pay or allowances.
The professors are placed on the same footing, as to retirement-from active service, as officers of the army.
Pay of the Academic staff: Superintendent, same as a colonel; Commandant of cadets, same as a lieutenant-colonel; Adjutant, same as an adjutant of the cavalry service; Professors, who have served more than ten years at the academy, the pay and allowances of a colonel, and all other professors those of a lieutenant-colonel; the instructors of ordnance and science of gunnery and of practical engineering have the pay of a major, besides ten per centum of their current yearly pay for each and every term of five years' service in the army and at the academy, and such professors are placed upon the same footing, as regards restrictions upon pay and retirement from active service, as officers of the army, each assistant professor and each senior instructor of cavalry, artillery and infantry tactics, and the instructor of practical military engineering, receives the pay of a captain; the master of the sword receives at the rate of 11,500 a year, with fuel and quarters; the librarian and assistant librarian of the academy each receive $120 additional pay; the non-commissioned officer in charge of mechanics and other labor at the academy, the soldier who acts as clerk in the adjutant's office, and the four enlisted men in the philosophical and chemical departments and the lithographic office, receive each $50 additional pay.
The corps of cadets consists of one from each congressional district in the United States, one from each Territory, one from the District of Columbia and ten from the United States at large, and are appointed by the President.
Appointees to cadetships are required to be between seventeen and twenty-two years old; but if they had served faithfully in the Southern rebellion as Union volunteers, the law allowed them to be two years older, and no person who served in the rebellion against the Union could receive a cadet's appointment. Cadets are appointed one year in advance of the time of their admission to the academy; they draw no pay or allowances until they are admitted; they are examined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War before their admission, and they are required to be well-versed in reading, writing and arithmetic, and to have a knowledge of the elements of English grammar, descriptive geography (particularly of our country), and of the history of the United States. Previous to admission, also, each cadet is required to take an oath of fidelity to his country and his duties, and to sign articles binding himself to serve the Government eight years, unless sooner discharged.
The cadets are arranged into companies, under the direction of the superintendent, each of which is commanded by an officer of the army for the purpose of military instruction. Each company is allowed four musicians. The corps is taught and trained in all the duties of a private soldier, non-commissioned officer and officer, goes into encampment at least once a year for three months, and is instructed and drilled in all the duties incident to a regular camp. Cadets are also subject to do duty in such places and on such service as the President may direct.
No cadet who is reported as deficient in either conduct or studies, and recommended to be discharged from the academy, can, except upon the recommendation of the academic board, be returned or re-appointed, or appointed to any position in the army before his class have left the academy and received their commissions.
The superintendent of the academy has power to convene general courts-martial for the trial of cadets, and to execute the sentences of such courts (except sentences of suspension or dismission), subject to the limitations and conditions existing as to other general courts-martial.