BILLS OF LADING are accounts in writing of merchandise shipped from one place to another, by any person, on board of an ocean or lake vessel, or on a railroad car, signed by the master of the vessel, or an officer of a freight line or a railroad company, who thus acknowledges the receipt of the goods, and agrees to deliver them safely at the place to which they are sent. One bill of lading is kept by the shipper, one by the party transporting the goods, and one is sent to the person to whom the goods are directed. The following shows form of bill:

UNION LINE.

THROUGH FREIGHT LINE, OWNED AND OPERATED BY THE PENNSYLVANIA COMPANY, VIA P. F. & C. R. B.

GEO B. EDWARDS, Eastern Manager, Pittsburgh, Pa. D. S. GRAY, Western Manager, Columbus, Ohio.

W. W. CHANDLER, General Agent, - - - - - N. W. Corner Dearborn and Washington Streets, Chicago, Ill.

Form And Suggestions Relating To Bills Of Lading B 389

Marked and numbered as in the margin, to be transported by the Union Line, and the steamboats, railroad companies and forwarding lines with which it connects, on the following terms and conditions, viz. : It being expressly understood and agreed, That the Union Line reserves the right, in consideration of issuing a through bill of lading, and guaranteeing a through rate, to forward said goods by any railroad line between points of shipment and destination.

It is further agreed That the rates given on bulk freight are given on the understanding that not less than 24,000 pounds will be loaded in each car, and that such minimum weight may, at the option of this line, be charged for, whether that quantity is placed in the car or not.

It is further agreed That all weight in excess of 30,000 lbs. per car will be charged double the rate named in this bill of lading.

It is further agreed That the said Union Line, and the steamboats, railroad companies and forwarding lines with which it connects, and which receives said property, shall not be liable for leakage of oils or any kind of liquids; breakage of any kind of glass, earthen or queensware, carboys of acids, or articles packed in glass, stoves and stove furniture, castings, machinery, carriages, furniture, musical instruments of any kind, packages of eggs; or for rust of iron and of iron articles; or for loss or damage by wet, dirt, fire or loss of weight; or for condition of baling in hay, hemp or cotton; nor for loss or damage of any kind on any articles whose bulk requires it to be carried on open cars; nor for damage to perishable property of any kind, occasioned by delays from any cause, or by change of weather; nor for loss or damage on any article of property whatever, by fire or other casualty, while in transit, or while in depots or places of transhipment, or at depots or landings at point of delivery; nor for loss or damage by fire, collision, or the dangers of navigation while on seas, rivers, lakes or canals. All goods or property under this bill of lading will be subject, at its owner's cost, to necessary cooperage or baling, and is to be transported to the depots of the companies or landing of the steamboats or forwarding lines, at the point receipted to, for delivery.

It is further agreed That unless this bill of lading, properly indorsed, be delivered to the agent of the Union Line at destination, on or before the arrival there of the herein-above-described property, the said line is authorized to deliver the said property to the consignee, or to the party to whose care it is, by this bill of lading, consigned; and after such delivery, the said line shall be no longer responsible for or on account of any assignment or transfer thereof. [ The claims relating to the time when the liability of the Union Line ceases, and the responsibility of shippers as to costs and charges, omitted. ]

It is further stipulated and agreed That in case of any loss, detriment, or damage, done to or sustained by any of the property herein receipted for during such transportation, whereby any legal liability or responsibility shall or may be incurred, that company alone shall be held answerable therefor in whose actual custody the same may be at the time of the happening of such loss, detriment, or damage, and the carrier so liable shall have the full benefit of any insurance that may have been effected upon or on account of said goods.

And it is further agreed That the amount of the loss or damage so accruing, so far as it shall fall upon the carriers above described, shall be computed at the value or cost of said goods or property at the place and time of shipment under this bill of lading, unless the value of the articles has been agreed upon with the shipper, or so determined by the classification upon which the rates are based.

It is further agreed That all weights furnished by shippers are subject to corrections.

This contract is executed and accomplished, and the liability of the companies, as common carriers thereunder, terminates on the arrival of the goods or property at the station or depot of delivery (and the companies will be liable as warehousemen only thereafter), and unless removed by the consignee from the stations or depots of delivery within twenty-four hours of their said arrival, they may be removed and stored by the companies, at the owner's expense and risk.

NOTICE - In accepting this bill of lading, the shipper or other agent of the owner of the property carried, expressly accepts and agrees to all its stipulations, exceptions and conditions. W. W. CHANDLER, Agent.