Legibility is of the greatest importance in penmanship ; and care should be observed to make each letter very distinctly what it is designed to be. While practicing with a view to improvement, the student should beware of writing too fast. The copies are very simple, and are easily imitated by the student who may give the subject earnest attention and care.

## Proportion Of Small Letters

The following diagrams represent the relative proportion of the capital and small letters. As will be seen in the diagram for the finer hand, there are eight lines, containing seven spaces. In the middle space are made the contracted letters which occupy one space, excepting

and

which are a little higher. The

and

are each of the same height;

and

extend the same distance below the line. The loop letters are all of the same length above and below the line, the loop being two thirds the length of the letter. Capitals are of the same height as the loop letters above the line.

Relative Proportion Of Letters In Large, Round Hand

Elements Of Small Letters

By examination of the small letters of the alphabet, it is seen that they can be resolved into a few fundamental elements (or principles, as they are called by many teachers), being five in number, as follows :

The 1st principle,

is found in the following letters, viz : last of

completely in the

in the

with the lower part omitted; last of the

first of the

and

completely in the

completely in the

and last of

The 2nd principle,

forms the first of

and upper part of

The 3rd principle,

forms the lower part of

the lower part of

last of

and

and first of

and

The 4th principle,

forms the first part of

left of

lower part of

left of

lower part of

upper part of

the whole of

upper part of

and right of

The 5th principle,

forms the upper part of

and

Inverted, it forms the lower part of

and

## General Hints For Small Letters

Be careful to close the

at the top, else it will resemble a

Observe the distinction between the

and the

The

and

The

is crossed one third the distance from the top. The loop is of uniform length in all loop letters. Avoid a loop in the upper part of

and

The dot of the

should be at a point twice the height of the letter. Beware of making the extended letters crooked. The left hand mark of the loop letters should be straight, from the center of the loop to the line, sloping at an angle of 52 degrees. See diagram of slope. Figures are twice the height of the

## Principles Of Capital Letters

No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

The capital stem (see No. 1) can be terminated at the bottom, as shown in the first character. Observe in Nos. 2 and 3 the disposition of shades, curves and parallel lines. Their application in capitals will be seen in the next column.

## Capital Letters

Three standard principles are used in the formation of Capital Letters, viz:

The 1st principle,

called the capital stem, is found in

The 2nd principle,

occurs in

and

The 3rd principle,

is found in the upper part of

and

and forms the first of

and

Capital letters, in a bold penmanship, are three times the height of the small letter