FOREIGNERS, before they become citizens of the United States, as set forth in the following forms and explanations, are called aliens, and owe no allegiance to the State in which they reside.

Aliens do not possess the right to vote for the election of any officer of the government, town, municipal, county, State or national; nor can they hold public offices until they are naturalized or have declared their intentions to become citizens.

Their personal and property rights while aliens are, however, respected and protected by all branches of our government.

Comparing individuals with governments, the alien seems to bear about the same relation to citizenship that the Territories of the United States do to the Union - protected, but with certain privileges withheld.

The laws by which an alien is transformed into a citizen, and is endowed with all a citizen's rights and privileges, are established by the general government.

The United States laws require the applicant for naturalization to be an individual who has lived within its territory for five years immediately before and up to the time of his application. He must also have resided during one year of the five in the State or Territory in which he makes his application. Two years before he can legally be naturalized, he must go before a federal court, or some local court of record, or the clerk of either of such courts, and make an affidavit that he proposes to become a full citizen of the United States at the proper time, and to renounce his allegiance to all other governments, princes or potentates, and, particularly, the sovereignty of the country from which he emigrated. In most States this declaration entitles him to vote. If an alien has served in the army or navy of the United States, and has been honorably discharged from such service, he may be naturalized after one year's residence in any State or Territory. Such residence must, however, be definitely proven before the court.

The first step in the process of legal naturalization, the applicant having duly shown that he is entitled to become a citizen, is to file in court a declaration of his intentions as follows:

Form Of Declaring Intention To Become A Citizen

I, Gustave Baum, do declare on oath (or do affirm), that it is really my intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to all and any foreign prince, potentate, State and sovereignty whatever, and particularly to William, Emperor of the German confederation.

GUSTAVE BAUM.

Sworn (or affirmed) in open court, at Loredo, Webb county, State of Texas, this sixteenth day of January, A. D. 1881.

Simon R. Peterson, Clerk.

The Clerk's Certificate

The following is annexed, to the declaration of intentions:

State of Texas, County of Webb,

88.

I, Simon R. Peterson, clerk of the circuit court of said county, do certify that the above is a true copy of the original declaration of intention of Gustave Baum to become a citizen of the United States, remaining on record in my office.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of said court, the sixteenth day of January, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one.

SIMON R. PETERSON, Clerk.

Seal oF Clerk oF Circuit Court.

Two years after filing his declaration of intention to become a citizen, the alien, having been a resident of the United States for five years, goes into the court again, bearing the written proof that he has been sufficiently long in the United States to become a citizen, and there makes oath of his allegiance as a citizen in the following forms:

Proof Of An Alien's Residence And Moral Character

Circuit Court, County or Webb, State of Texas,

88.

Robert Morris, of Loredo, being duly sworn (or affirmed)says that he is a citizen of the United States, and is, and has been during the last past five years, well acquainted with Gustave Baum, now present; that said Gustave Baum has resided within the United States for at least five years last past, and for one year last past within the State of Texas; and that during that time the said Gustave Baum has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same.

ROBERT MORRIS.

Sworn (or affirmed) in open court the twenty-fifth day of January, A. D. 1883.

Simon R. Peterson, Clerk.

The Applicant's Oath Of Allegiance Accompanying The Foregoing Proof

Circuit Court, County of Webb, State oF Texas,

88.

I, Gustave Baum, do swear (or affirm) that the contents of my petition are true; that I will support the constitution of the United States; and I now renounce and relinquish any title or order of nobility to which I am now or may hereafter be entitled; and I do absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty whatever, and particularly to William, Emperor of the German confederation, of whom before I was a subject.

GUSTAVE BAUM.

Sworn (or affirmed) in open court, this twenty-fifth day of Jan-nary, A. D. 1883. Simon R. Peterson, Clerk.

The applicant for citizenship having now complied with all the requirements of the naturalization law, by properly declaring his intentions, and proving his eligibility to become a citizen, and having taken the oath of allegiance to the United States government and renounced the claims of any other government upon him to the satisfaction of the court, is now entitled to receive the final certificate that he is a citizen of the United States. The form of the certificate is as follows:

Certificate Of Citizenship After Having Been Fully Naturalized

United States of America, State of Texas, County of Webb,

88.

Be it remembered that on the twenty-fifth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three, Gustave Baum, formerly of Berlin, in the empire of Germany, now of Loredo, Webb county, in the State of Texas, appeared in the circuit court (the said court being a court of record, having common-law jurisdiction, and a clerk and seal), and applied to the said court to be admitted to become a citizen of the United States of America, pursuant to the provisions of the several acts of Congress of the United States of America, for that purpose made and provided. And the said applicant having produced to the court such evidence, made such declaration and renunciation, and taken such oaths as are by the said acts required, it was ordered by the said court that the said applicant be admitted, and he was accordingly admitted by said court, to be a citizen of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof the seal of the said court is hereunto affixed this twenty-fifth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three, and in the year of our independence one hundred and seven.

By the Court,

SIMON R. PETERSON, Clerk.

If any alien die after declaring his intention to become a full citizen, and before he can legally do so, his widow and children are entitled to all the rights and privileges of citizens upon taking the oath of allegiance to this government.