This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
THE civilization of the age is signalized by the advancement of woman to a higher plane of thought and action than she formerly occupied. Among the savage nations, woman's condition is that of the very lowest; in the semi-civilized countries she is largely regarded as tit only for menial labor, and even in civilized Europe, to-day. among the lower classes, the woman, harnessed with a dog, transports a large share of the produce to market, and in the same manner she serves as a creature of burden in scavenger and other work.
Only back to the first of this century, among the most in-telligent of our best society in America and Europe, woman was thought unworthy and incompetent to perform work requiring any great degree of intellectuality. She was permitted to teach primary schools at a very low salary; beyond that, very few intellectual pursuits were open to her outside of literature.
Gradually, however, woman has beaten her way to the front, in spite of ridicule, jealousy and opposition. College trustees have resisted the opening of their doors to her; the managers of higher institutions of learning have opposed the idea of employing her as the superintendent of their schools. Physicians have fought against her invading their domain. Church-goers have insisted that they would never listen to a woman-preacher. Lawyers have laughed at the suggestion that she might enter their profession, and judges in authority have refused her admission to practice in certain courts.
But the march of progress has been forward, and the intelligent sentiment of the age has demanded that woman be allowed to enter any pursuit, the work of which she could perform just as well as men. The result has been the filling of hundreds of clerkships in the Treasury Department at Washington with women, very satisfactorily to the government and all parties concerned. Large numbers have entered the postal service, holding various important positions. Thousands have gone into the educational field, and as teachers, managers, and heads of academies, seminaries, and advanced public schools, have demonstrated both business capacity and intellectual talent of a high order. A large percentage of women are successfully engaged in mercantile pursuits. She is well represented in the medical profession, she is fast entering the pulpit, and the time is not far distant when on the platform, whether engaged in general lecture, moral teaching, political discussion, or legal argument, she will be found the exponent of truth and co-worker with man in reform. And while all this transpires she will be no less the kind mother, and the devoted, faithful wife.
woman's gesture in oratory and elocution.
IN the illustration of Dignified Repose, the position is erect, quiet and graceful; the right foot is a little in advance of the left; the right arm and hand listlessly pend at the side, with the left forearm resting easily upon a book or table; all the muscles are relaxed; the eyes express tranquillity; the forehead is free from lines of care; the voice is subdued, but natural and cheerful, and the whole appearance of the individual evinces inward and outward contentment.
Example - "Dear Ladies: With the multitude of ignorant people about us who need education, shall we not lend our assistance towards making the world wiser and better? To do this we should make the most of the privileges presented through the power of language; but to give words their greatest effect, these arts, including tone of voice, facial expression and gesture, must be studied and mastered, if we would use language to the best advantage. "
EVERY indication of Laughter is represented here. The face, beaming with
Wreathed smiles, is slightly elevated; the form is sprightly and elastic, and convulsed with joyousness; the right arm and hand are extended, with the open palm turned towards the object of ridicule; the mouth opens widely to give vent to laughter, and the voice is loud and musical with gayety. Laughter is also a peculiar feature in representations of scorn. This is easily distinguished.
Example - "What I in love! ha! ha! - the idea! and with that fellow! The thought is so supremely ridiculous! My name to be changed to Mrs. Philander Jacob Stubbs! And on the strength of the report - ha! ha! - Philander Jacob came around to see mother last night! I think I feel a pain in my heart already - ha! ha! Mrs. Philander Jacob Stubbs, indeed! Laughable, isn't it - ha! ha! ha.! Mrs. Stubbs! - Mrs. Stubbs/ - ha! ha! ha!"
BOTH feet, in Anger, are firmly planted apart upon the floor; the upper part of the form and head energetically incline forward; the forehead contracts; the eyebrows lift; the eyes fiercely flash; the arms rigidly stretch down the sides, with the hands clinched; the breath comes quick and heavily; the voice is shrill and harsh. The emotion of anger, under a sense of personal injury, may develop into resentment or revenge, and become furious or sullen, accord-ins: to temperament.
Example - "Smile on, my lords!
I scorn to count what feelings, withered hopes, Strong provocations, bitter, burning wrongs, I have within my heart's hot cells shut up, To leave you in your lazy dignities; But here I stand and scoff you! here I fling Hatred and full defiance in your face!"
ABSENCE of all hope creates Despair, and according to the sharpness of suffering the expression varies - sometimes indicating bewilderment and distraction; a look of wildness, and then a laxation of vitality bordering on insensibility; again, a terrific gloom of countenance; the eyes are fixed; the features shrunken and livid, and the muscles of the face are tremulous and convulsive; occasionally tears and laughter alternate, but frequently stupidity and sullenness appear.
Example - " Me miserable! - which way shall I fly Infinite wrath and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep, Still threatening to devour me, opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven! .. Farewell, remorse! All good to me is lost!"