This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
Battle of Fort Sumter - Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbor, S. C., occupied bv Major Robert Anderson and a force of 47 effective United States soldiers and 62 other persons, and mounting 52 cannon, was bombarded by General Beauregard, commanding 7,000 Confederates, in Charleston, April 12 and 13, 1861. The fort was set on fire by the Confederates, and evacuated, after a fair defense, by
Major Anderson. His loss was only one man, who was killed by the bursting of a gun inside the fort; the Confederate losses are not generally known.
Skirmish at Fairfax Court House, Va. - Fought May 31, 1861, between 47 Unionist cavalry, under Lieutenant Tompkins, and a force of 1,500 Confederates.
Battle at Phlllippi - Fought June 3, 1861, at Phillippi, W. Va., between 2,000 Confederates and several regiments of Unionists, under Colonel Kelly and Colonel Lander, resulting in the retreat of the Confederates, with a loss of 15 killed. a number wounded and taken prisoners, and $25,000 worth of arms surrendered. Colonel Kelly was severely wounded.
Battle of Big Bethel - Fought June 10, 1861, at Big Bethel, Va., between 2,500 Unionists, under General Pierce, and 1,800 Confederates.
The Unionists were defeated, with a loss of 16 killed, 34 wounded, and 5 missing. The Confederate loss is unknown.
Skirmish at Cole Camp - A body of Confederates attacked a company of Home Guards at Cole Camp, Mo., June 10, 1861. The latter were defeated, with a loss of 10 killed, 20 wounded, and 30 prisoners.
Skirmish at Falling Waters - Fought near Hainesville, W. Va., July 2, 1861, between five Confederate regiments and a battery, under General Johnston and a portion of the Unionists in General Patterson's division. After a sharp fight the Confederates retired to Martinsburg. Their loss was about 80 killed and wounded. The Unionists had 3 killed and 10 wounded.
Battle of Carthage - Fought at Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861, between 1,500 Unionists, under General Sigel and 6,000 Confederates, under Generals Parsons and Rains. The Unionists were defeated, and lost 14 killed and 31 wounded. The Confederate loss was estimated at about 500.
Battle of Rich Mountain - Fought at Rich Mountain, Va., July 11, 1861, between a detachment of Unionists, under General Rose-crans, and about 1,000 Confederates, under Colonel Pegram. The Confederates lost 150 killed and wounded, and 800 others surrendered as prisoners. The Unionists, during that and the succeeding three days' campaign, lost only 13 killed and 40 wounded; the Confederates 200 killed, and 7 guns.
Battle of Carrick's Ford - Fought July 13, 1861, at Carrick's ford, Va., between 10,000 Confederates, under General Garnett, and a column of Unionists, under General Morris. After a sharp action the former retreated, General Garnett having been killed. The Union loss was 2 killed and 10 wounded.
Skirmish at Screytown - Fought at Screy-town, Va., July 13, 1861, between a body of Confederates, and a party of Unionists under Colonel Lowe; the latter were defeated with a loss of 9 killed, and 40 wounded and missing.
Battle of Blackburn Ford - Fought July 18, 1861, near Blackburn ford, Va., between Colonel Richardson's brigade of Unionists and a body of Confederates. The latter received the Unionists with a raking fire from a battery. The Unionists maintained their position, however, for three hours, until ordered to retire to Centerville. Their loss was 19 killed and 64 wounded and missing; that of the Confederates about 60.
First Battle of Bull Run - Fought July21, 1861,at Manasses,on Bull Run river, in Northeastern Virginia, between General McDowell and about 28,000 Unionists and about 30,000 Confederates, commanded by Generals Beauregard and Joseph E. Johnston. The Unionists fought well at first, but, the Confederates being reinforced, a panic ensued in the Union army, and it fled in great disorder toward Washington. The Union loss was 481 killed, 1,011 wounded, and 1,460 missing; the Confederates lost 378 killed, 1,489 wounded, and 30 missing. The Unionists also lost 4,000 muskets and 4,500 sets of accoutrements, 20 cannon, and a considerable quantity of ammunition.
Battle of Dug Spring, Mo. - A body of Confederates, under General Rains, was defeated by General Lyon's command, August 2, 1861. The latter lost 8 killed and 30 wounded.
Battle of Wilson's Creek - Fought August 10, 1861, at Wilson's Creek, Mo., between 5,000 Unionists, under General Lyon, and about twice as many Confederates, under Generals McCulloch and Price. After six hours' hard fighting, during which General Lyon was killed, the Unionists retired to Springfield, Mo. The Union loss in killed, wounded and missing was 1,256 men; that of the Confederates was 1,768 men.
Skirmish at Charleston, Mo. - August 21, 1861, Colonel Doherty, with 300 Illinois soldiers, dispersed a rebel force, losing 1 killed and 6 wounded.
Battle at Summerville, Va. - The seventh Ohio regiment, 900 strong, was surprised while at breakfast, August 26, 1861, by a Confederate force, under General Floyd, but fought their way out, with the loss of six officers.