This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
THE executive power of the Territories of the United States is vested in a governor, who is appointed by the President, and who holds his office for four years, unless sooner removed. He resides in the Territory to which he is assigned, although appointed from some other portion of the United States.
In his office he is commander-in-chief of the militia of his Territory, grants pardons and reprieves, remits fines and forfeitures for offenses against the laws of the Territory; issues respites for offenses against the laws of the United States, till the decision of the President can be made known thereon; commissions all officers appointed under the laws of such Territory, and takes care that the statutes are faithfully executed. The governor has also the same powers to either approve or veto any bill passed by the Territorial legislature, and the process in either case is similar to that indicated in the description of the government of the several States of the Union.
The President also appoints a secretary for each Territory, who resides in the Territory to which he is appointed, and who holds his office for four years, unless sooner removed. In case of the death, removal, resignation or absence of the governor from the Territory, the secretary executes all the powers and performs all the duties of the governor during such vacancy or absence. It is the duty of the secretary, also, to record and preserve all the laws and proceedings of the legislative assembly, and all the acts and proceedings of the governor in the executive department; transmit copies of the laws and journals of the legislature, after each session thereof, to the President and Congress, and copies of the executive proceedings and official correspondence of the Territory to the President twice a year; prepare the laws passed by the legislature for publication, and furnish the copy to the public printer of the Territory.
The legislature consists of two branches - the council and house of representatives, members of both branches being duly qualified voters, are elected by the people in the various districts in the Territory. They remain in office two years, and hold their regular sessions once in two years, each legislature appointing its own day of meeting. Members must reside in the county or district from which they are respectively elected. The apportionment of districts and the election of legislators are established by the laws of the United States.
Laws passed in certain Territories have to be submitted to Congress, and if they are not there approved, they become null and void. The Territorial legislatures are not allowed to pass laws interfering with the primary disposal of the soil, imposing taxes upon property of the United States, or taxing the land or property of non-resident owners higher than that of persons residing in the Territory.
The sessions of each Territorial legislature are limited to forty days. The president of the council and the speaker of the house are both elected by their respective branches of the legislature. The qualifications of members and their rights to hold other offices while they are members, etc., are regulated by United States law. The legislature cannot pass any law altering the salary of the governor, the secretary, or the officers or members of the legislature as fixed by the laws of the United States.
The subordinate officers of each branch of every Territorial legislature consist of one chief clerk, one assistant clerk, one enrolling clerk, one engrossing clerk, one sergeant-at-arms, one door-keeper, one messenger and one watchman.
Every Territory has a right to send a Delegate to the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States, to serve during each term of Congress, and this Delegate is elected by a majority of the qualified voters of the Territory. Such Delegate has a seat in Congress with the right of debating, but not of voting.
Justices of the peace, and all general officers of the militia of the Territory, are appointed or elected by the people in such manner as may be prescribed by the governor and legislature; all other officers not otherwise provided for by the laws of the United States are appointed by the governor, with the advice of the Territorial council, vacancies being filled temporarily by the governor's appointment during a recess of the legislature until it meets again.
Voters must be twenty-one years old, and citizens of the United States, or persons who have legally declared their intentions of becoming such, and without regard to "race, color or previous condition of servitude." No officer, soldier, seamen, mariner or other person in the service of the United States can vote in any Ter ritory until he has been permanently domiciled there for six months, and no person belonging to the army or navy can be elected to, or hold, any civil office or appointment in any Territory.
All township, district and county officers, except justices and general officers of the militia, are appointed or elected in such manner as the governor and legislature provide.
The supreme court of every Territory consists of a chief justice and two associate justices, any two of whom constitute a quorum for business. They are appointed by the President, hold their offices for four years, unless sooner removed, and open a term of their court annually at the seat of Territorial government.
Each Territory is divided into three judicial districts, in each of which a Territorial district court is held by one of the justices of the supreme court, at such time and place as the law prescribes; and each judge, after his assignment, resides in the district to which he is assigned.
The supreme court and the district courts, respectively. of the Territories, possess chancery as well as common law jurisdiction.
A penitentiary established in some of the Territories when ready for the reception of convicts, is placed in charge of the attorney-general of the Territory, who makes all needful rules and regulations for its government, and the marshal having charge over such penitentiary must cause them to be duly executed and obeyed; and the reasonable compensation of the marshal and his deputies for their services under such regulations are fixed by the attorney-general.