THIS EXECUTIVE department of the Government is in charge of the Attorney-General of the United States. He is assisted by another officer, learned in the law, called the Solicitor-General; also three officers, learned in the law, called Assistant Attorneys - General; a Solicitor of the Treasury, an Assistant Solicitor of the Treasury, a Solicitor of Internal Revenue, a Naval Solicitor, and an Examiner of Claims for the Department of State. All of the officers above designated are appointed by the President, each and all of whom hold their positions for four years, unless for sufficient cause they are sooner removed. Duties of the Attorney-General. It is the duty of the Attorney-General to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law whenever required by the President. No public money can be expended upon any building, site or land purchased by the Government on which to erect any armory, arsenal, fort, fortification, navy-yard, custom-house, lighthouse or other public building until the Attorney-General, in writing, decides upon the validity of the land-title and the Legislature of the State in which the land is located has given its consent to such purchase; and other government officers are named as assistants in procuring sound title to such lands.

The head of any executive department may require the Attorney-General to give his opinion concerning any question of law arising in his department, including the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, who may call upon him for legal advice.

Most of the questions of law referred to the Attorney-General, he may submit to his subordinate officers for examination and opinion, but not any questions involving a construction of the Constitution of the United States, and his approval of their opinions is required to make them valid. He has a general superintendence over district attorneys and marshals of the United States in any State or district, and when the public interest requires it, he may employ other counsel to aid district attorneys in their duties. Should the head of any department require the attendance of counsel in examining witnesses in any claim case, the Attorney-General must furnish a subordinate lawyer for that purpose, and regulations exist for the appointment and preparation of such counsel. He may also send the Solicitor-General, or any officer of the Department of Justice, to any State or district of the United States to attend to the interests of the Government in any Federal or State court. He has also a general supervision of the accounts of district attorneys, marshals, clerks or other officers of United States courts. He shall also sign all requisitions for the advance or payment of all moneys in the Treasury, appropriated for the use of the Department of Justice. He is also authorized to publish in book form, from time to time, such opinions of the officers of the Dapartment of Justice as he shall deem valuable for preservation, with indexes and foot-notes, the work to be done at the Government Printing-office.

At the beginning of each regular session of Congress, he has to make a report of the business of the Department of Justice for the last preceding fiscal year, including the expense accounts of the Federal courts, statistics of crime in the United States, the number of pending suits, etc.; also a report of the additional counsel and attorneys employed to assist in United States law cases.

The officers of the Department of Justice, under the direction of the Attorney-General, shall assist in performing all legal services required for other departments, in prosecuting or defending government, claims, suits, etc., and the Attorney-General may require any solicitor or officer of his department to perform any duty required of the department or any of its officers.

Unless the Attorney-General otherwise directs, he and the Solicitor-General shall conduct and argue suits and writs of error and appeals in the Supreme Court, and suits in the courts of claims, in which the Government is interested.

The traveling expenses of the officers of this department, while visiting courts, etc., in remote States and districts, are paid in addition to their salaries.

The Judiciary Department Of The United States 494

THE CONSTITUTION declares that the judicial power of the United States is vested in one Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, hold their offices during good behavior, and receive for their services compensation that may not be diminished during their continuance in office. This judicial power extends to all cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and all treaties with for-eign countries made under their authority.

The Supreme Court of the United States consists of a Chief Justice and eight associate justices, appointed by the President, any six of whom constitute a quorum. The associate justices have precedence according to the dates of their commissions, or, when the commissions of two or more of them bear the same date, according to their ages. Should a vacancy occur in the office of Chief Justice, or he become unable to perform the labors and exercise the powers of his office, his duties devolve upon the associate justice who is first in precedence, until such disability is removed or another associate justice is appointed and qualified. This provision applies to every associate justice who succeeds to the office of Chief Justice.

The Supreme Court has power to appoint a clerk, a marshal, and a reporter of its decisions.

The clerk is under the same obligations, the same restrictions, the same oath or affirmation of office, and the same bond, as is the clerk of a United States district court.

One or more deputy clerks may be appointed by the court on the application of the clerk, and may be removed at the pleasure of the court; and their duties and responsibilities are similar to those of deputy clerks in a United States district court.