This section is from the book "The Business Man's Encyclopedia", By 27 Experts. Also available from Amazon: The Business Man's Encyclopedia.

60 minims make.............................1 drachm.

8 drachms make.............................1 ounce.

16 ounces make..............................1 pint.

8 pints make................................1 gallon.

The standard Avoirdupois pound is of the weight 27.7015 cubic inches of distilled water weighed in air 39.83°, the barometer at thirty inches; one cubic inch of such water weighs 252.6937 grains, and one cubic foot weighs very nearly 1000 ounces.

All coarse articles of merchandise, such as hay, grain. chandler's ware, and all metals except gold and silver are weighed by this measure.

1G drams make.........................1 ounce.

16 ounces make........................1 pound.

28 pounds make........................1 quarter.

100 pounds make........................1 cwt.

20 hundred weight.....................1 ton net.

112 pounds make........................1 cwt. gross.

2240 pounds make........................1 ton gross.

56 pounds make........................1 firkin.

100 pounds fish.........................1 quintal.

196 pounds make........................1 bbl. flour.

200 pounds make.......................1 bbl. pork or beef.

14 pounds iron or lead..................1 stone.

2 1/2 stone make............................1 bushel.

8 pigs make...............................1 bushel.

62 pounds fine salt..........................1 bushel.

75 pounds common salt......................1 fother.

85 pounds coarse salt........................1 pig.

240 pounds = 1 cask lime. 300 pounds = 1 cask cement. 100 pounds make 1 cask of raisins. 1 ounce Avoirdupois equals 18 pwt. 5 1/2 grs. Troy, or

437 1/2 grains. 1 pound Avoirdupois equals 14 ounces 11 pwts. 16 grs. Troy, or 7000 grains.

Used in measuring latitude and longitude.

60 seconds make.............................1 minute.

60 minutes make.............................1 degree.

30 degrees make.............................1 sign.

360 degrees make.............................1 circle.

Cubic measure is used for measuring stone, timber, earth, capacity of rooms, ships, and such other things as have length, breadth and thickness.

1728 cubic inohes make................1 cubic foot.

27 cubic feet make...................1 cubic yard.

40 cubic feet of round timber.........1 ton.

50 cubic feet of hewn timber..........1 ton.

42 solid feet make...................1 ton of shipping.

8 cord feet or.......................1 cord wood.

128 cubic feet........................1 cord wood.

24 3/4 cubic feet of stone make..........1 perch.

A cord of wood is a pile 4 feet high and 8 feet long.

1 cubic foot makes.............four-fifths of a bushel.

64 cubic inches (2x4x8) make.... 1 brick.

16 cubic feet (2x2x4) make.......1 cord foot.

128 cubic feet (4x4x8) make......1 cord wood.

The weight of anthracite coal per cubic foot varies with the different qualities. Lackawanna coal weighs 48.89 pounds per cubic foot; Lehigh, 55.32 pounds. There are 45.8 cubic feet in a ton of Lackawanna, and 40.5 cubic feet in a ton of Lehigh.

1 ton of 6-inch granite paving will cover 1 superficial yard. 1 ton of 7-inch granite paving will cover 3 1/2 superficial yards. 1 ton of 8-inch granite paving will cover 3 superficial yards. 1 ton of 9-inch granite paving will cover 2 1/2 superficial yards. 1 ton of pebble paving will cover 4 to 4 1/2 superficial yards. 1 ton of rag stone paving will cover 5 to 5 1/2 superficial yards.

625 square links make...................1 pole.

16 poles make..........................1 square chain.

10 square chains make..................1 acre.

640 acres make..........................1 square mile.

36 square miles (6 miles square) make... 1 township.

Used to measure all dry articles, such as grain, coal, salt, fruit, etc.

2 pints make..............1 quart - 67.2 cubic inches.

4 quarts make............1 gallon - 268.8 cubic inches.

2 gallons make............1 peck - 537.6 cubic inches.

4 pecks make.............1 bushel - 2150.4 cubic inches.

36 bushels make...........1 chaldron of coal - 57.25 cubic ft.

4 bushels in England make.l coom.

2 cooms in England make.. 1 quarter.

5 quarters in England make1 wey. 2 weys in England make... 1 last.

The standard bushel of the United States is the Winchester bushel of England. It is a circular measure 18 1/2 inches in diameter and 8 inches deep, and contains nearly 2150.42 cubic inches.

It contains 77.627413 Avoirdupois pounds of distilled water at its maximum density.

A gallon dry measure contains 268.8 cubic inches.

In purchasing anthracite coal 20 bushels are generally called a ton.

Number 1 is 4.125 inches in length, and every succeeding number is .333 of an inch. There are 28 numbers or divisions in two series of numbers, to-wit: 1 to 13 and 1 to 15.

Used by civil engineers, surveyors, etc.

The surveyors or Gunter's chain is generally used in surveying land. It is 66 feet or 4 poles in length and is divided into 100 links.

Engineers commonly use a chain or measuring tape 100 feet long.

7 92-100 inches make...........................1 link.

25 links make..................................1 rod.

4 rods or 100 links make.......................1 chain.

60 chains make.................................1 mile.

3 inches make.........................1 palm.

4 inches make.........................1 hand.

9 inches make.........................1 span.

12 inches make.........................1 foot.

3.2809 inches make....................1 metre.

18 inches make.........................1 cubit.

28 inches make nearly...................1 sacred cubit.

28 inches make.........................1 pace.

3 feet make............................1 yard.

6 feet make............................1 fathom.

120 fathoms make........................1 cable.

3 feet make............................1 pace.

A hair's breadth is .02083 or 1-48 part of an inch. 1 yard is .000568 of a mile. 1 inch is .0000158 of a mile.

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