Next we have the making of the handles and pulls for drawers, bookcases, cabinets, etc., similar to those shown in Figs. 27 and 31. A pull or handle is made up of three parts: the back, the handle, and the sockets. When designing the pull, always have the lower part of the handle fall upon the back and not upon the wood. The method of transferring the design and saw-piercing the back is exactly the same as with the hinge. Hammer the metal slightly to make it stiff and bend the edges down a very little, so that when the pull is finished and attached to the drawer, the edge of the back will rest on the wood and not rock on the bent-over part of the socket, as will be shown later. Cut off a piece of wire the length of the handle, which may be found by bending a strip of tin, or fine wire, or string, around the outline of the handle on the design and then straightening it out. After the wire is cut off the correct length, bend the ends with the hammer on the edge of the lapping-tool, and bend the rest to the outline of the design. Place the handle on the back in its proper position, and mark the place for the sockets, which are made of a strip of metal the same thickness as the back and about 1/4" wide. Bend the strip around the handle; and in the back saw out a small slit just as wide as the strip and twice the thickness of the metal, so that the two ends of the strip will fit tight when they are passed thru the slit. Next bend the ends back, one up and one down, and hammer them down with the hammer. If the edge of the back is not bent back slightly, as mentioned before, the ends of the sockets will cause the back to stand out from the drawer, which, of course, is to be avoided. Mark and drill the holes for the screws to fasten to the drawer, color and finish. Keyhole escutcheons may be sawed out and the holes drilled for the fastening screws in the same manner as for the hinge.

Fig . 31. Drawer and door pulls.

Fig. 31. Drawer and door-pulls.

Fig . 32. Saw pierced napkin ring's in copper, brass, and silver.

Fig. 32. Saw-pierced napkin-ring's in copper, brass, and silver.

Another interesting application of the process of saw-piercing is the making of napkin-rings in copper, brass, and silver, Fig. 32.

The first step is to get the design drawn on paper. This is easily done by folding a piece of paper twice so that when opened out again the paper has been divided into four parts by the creases. Draw with a pencil one-quarter of the design in one of the quarter-sections, then fold the paper and rub the back of the design and transfer to the other side in the same manner as described for the making of watch-fobs. Fold again and rub over the other sections, and the design is complete. The use of the mirrors held on the section lines will be found especially helpful on this problem.

Transfer the design to a piece of metal of 18-gage thickness, and saw out the design. Mark with a pencil line where the corners are to be bent. Then take a large wire nail and file the end like a blunt chisel. Place the metal on a soft piece of wood, and hold the chisel end of the nail on the corner line and strike it with a hammer, making an impression where the corners are to be. This will make a sharp corner and make the bending more easy. Bend on a piece of hard wood or iron, bringing the ends together.

Fig. 33. Saw pierced napkin clip.

Fig. 33. Saw-pierced napkin-clip.

Fig . 34. Bag with saw pierced silver top

Fig. 34. Bag with saw-pierced silver top.

Fig. 35. Bag with hammered copper top.

Fig. 35. Bag with hammered copper top.

Next we have to hard-solder the ends together. Scrape the ends with a knife to get them clean, and tie them together with a piece of thin iron wire. Cover the seam with a thin paste of borax and water. Place a small strip of silver solder on the inside of the seam and hold the seam over a blue flame until the solder melts. The flame must be hot enough to get the metal red-hot before the solder will melt.

It is now necessary to clean the napkin-ring. This may be done by placing in the sulphuric acid "pickle." In about 30 minutes it will come out bright and clean. File off any rough places, polish with a brush or with emery cloth and planish smooth on an iron stake, color, and finish.

Fig. 36. Drawer pulls.

Fig. 36. Drawer pulls.

The "napkin-clip," Fig. 33, is another easily made piece. The design is drawn in the flat, transferred to the metal and sawn out, and then the metal is bent into the form shown, and planished to make it stiff and springy. The napkin is folded and pushed into the open space.

Still another adaptation is the silver bag-top shown in Fig. 34. The construction is so apparent that no special directions are necessary, except to say that a piece of thin metal is necessary under the lining on the inside of the bag to hold the rivets that the top is fastened with. This applies also to the bag with the hammered copper top, Fig. 35.

When making the two drawer-pulls shown in Fig. 36, it is necessary to use the saw and saw-frame. A piece of metal of the right shape is cut out and a line is sawn at the place where the fingers take hold of the pull when it is finished. The metal is then beaten into a hollow in a block of wood, annealing when necessary. The final planishing on an iron stake will also stretch the metal somewhat. Care must be taken not to split the metal at the ends of the sawn line.