Three distinct types of handles are shown in the illustrations. The handle of the small pitcher in Fig. 97 was made by heating a piece of 1/4" round wire red hot and hammering and forging it into the desired shape, filing it true afterwards. It might be well to state here that copper can be forged, hammered, and bent while it is hot, but that brass cannot, as it will break and crumble under the blows of a hammer. "

Fig . 98. Snarling iron.

Fig. 98. Snarling iron.

The handle of the fluted pitcher, Fig. 100, was cut out of a flat piece of 18-gage metal; the edges were lapped as described for the edges of plates and book-ends, and then bent into shape and soldered on to the pitcher. The handle of the large pitcher, Fig. 97, and the handles of the silver pitcher and of the salad bowl, Figs. 105 and 108, are hollow and are the most difficult kind to make. The handles of the salad bowl are made of two pieces, the curved inside part of the handle being one piece and the flat outside piece being soldered on after the curved piece has been hammered into shape.

The handle of the large pitcher, Fig. 97, is made of one piece of flat metal. The method of making a hollow handle out of flat metal is as follows: Make a full size outline drawing of the handle, as it is to fit on to the pitcher, and sketch in the extra length on the ends as is shown by the dotted lines on the large drawings at A, Fig. 94. Next mark on the drawing the places where the handle varies in section and draw the shape of the sections as shown at B. Next draw the dotted line C thru the middle of the handle and measure its length by spacing off with dividers or by bending a piece of wire to the shape of the line. Lay off this length, as at C, and mark the distances from the ends where the sections B were taken. Obtain the circumference of the B sections, and lay off one-half of the circumference on each side of the corresponding section on the straight line C. Connect the ends of these lines with a freehand curve and you will have an approximate pattern of the hollow handle ready to be cut out of the flat metal. It is bent into shape by hammering with the neck hammer over a hollow in a block of wood, making the edges curl in towards each other, then driving them together from the outside until they touch the full length of the handle, when they should be hard soldered together. Then the handle should be filled with melted rosin- or burgundy pitch and when the rosin is cold and hard the handle may be bent into shape with a mallet over the tee-stake and hammered smooth and the rosin melted out. It should next be fitted to the body of the pitcher and wired on as shown in the drawing, Fig. 94, then hard soldered into place.

Fig . 99. Tea pot body , jardiniere, pitcher, roughly raised to shape, ready for the handle

Fig. 99. Tea-pot body-, jardiniere, pitcher, roughly raised to shape, ready for the handle and spout to be soldered on.

Fig. 100. Pitcher with flat handle and bowl.

Fig. 100. Pitcher with flat handle and bowl.