The term planishing meant to the metalworkers of years ago the process of smoothing and stiffening the metal by hammering it carefully with the smooth flat face of a planishing hammer. In our case it would be with the flat face of the ball-pein hammer.

7See Fig. 11, p. 64.

Fig . 53. Table lamp and desk accessories.

Fig. 53. Table lamp and desk accessories.

Within the last few years the custom of hammering the metal with the ball end of the hammer and with the neck hammer has also been called planishing. All these methods were used on the lanterns shown in the photographs and may readily be distinguished by the long narrow marks of the neck hammer, the small distinct round marks of the ball end of the hammer, and the smooth, almost invisible, marks of the real planishing with the flat end of the hammer. For the beginner the easiest method is to planish with the neck hammer or the ball end of the ball-pein hammer.

Now the lantern-top is ready for the hole thru which the electric wires pass. This hole should be 3/8" in diameter. It may be bored thru with a drill, or sawn out with the saw-frame used on the drawer-pulls and hinges.8

The hole is made 3/8" in diameter because that is the size of the small brass nipple that is used to hold the electric socket in the lantern. These nipples cost five cents each and may be obtained from any dealer in electric supplies. There is a thread on both ends, but as only one is necessary the other may be sawn and filed off as indicated in the drawing, Fig. 48.

It is now necessary to make the handle and rivet it on the lantern-top. . This handle may be made of round wire flattened at both ends to allow of riveting, or it may be made of a strip of flat metal cut out and bent to shape. When riveting the handle to the lantern-top have the head of the rivet on the outside. These rivets are known as oval head rivets, - the term oval applying to the cross-section view of the head which is half oval. The heads of the rivets used on the lanterns in the photographs were 3/16" and 1/4" in diameter. They are known as No. 12 trunk rivets, and may be obtained at almost any hardware store.

Fig 54. Lantern.

Fig 54. Lantern.

8See Fig. 25, p. 75.

Fig. 55. Lanterns and table lamp.

Fig. 55. Lanterns and table lamp.

After the handle is fastened to the top, cut a paper pattern for the corner pieces. If the lantern is to be the same size at the bottom as it is at the top the pattern will look like B, Fig. 48, but if it is to be wider at the bottom than at the top, the pattern will look like C. Cut out the corners from the flat metal and planish them with the same hammer used in planishing the top. If they get very hard from the planishing, soften them by " annulling."

Then draw a pencil-line down the center where the corners are to be bent at right angles. To bend the corners, get two pieces of hard wood about 10" long x 1" thick x 2" wide, and place the copper between the pieces of wood so that the center-line comes exactly to the edge of the wood as illustrated in the sketch. Fig. 48. Fasten in the vise, and with the mallet carefully and smoothly hammer over at right angles the part that projects above the wood. In making the paper pattern of the top cross-piece, allow 1/4" extra metal along the edge that goes next to the top for the purpose of riveting the body of the lantern to the lantern-top. Planish the cross-pieces to match the top and corners, and bend the extra 1/4" over at right angles between the two pieces of wood as before. Cut out and planish the bottom pieces.

Fig. 56. Desk or piano lantern.

Fig. 56. Desk or piano lantern.

The photographs show a rivet in the center of each bottom and top cross-piece. The purpose of this rivet is to hold a small piece of sheet copper of the dimensions indicated at D, Fig. 48. These pieces are made of 24-gauge soft copper.

After the lantern is colored and finished, this small piece of copper is bent over on to the glass to hold it in place. It is better to cut out and rivet these pieces on the cross-pieces before the cross-pieces are riveted to the corner pieces. Next locate and drill the holes in all the pieces excepting the top, and rivet the lantern together. Then place the top in position, mark and drill the holes, and rivet the top on to the lantern and it is ready for coloring and finishing.