books



previous page: Motor Truck Design And Construction | by  C. T. Schaefer
  
page up: Craft and Hobby Books
  
next page: The Manual Of Receipts | by Sidney Paine Johnston

Art Metalwork With Inexpensive Equipment



Among the leading teachers of the manual arts in the schools there is a growing interest in art metalwork. This is due in part to a recognition of the increasing importance of metal as a material of construction in the arts and industries, in part- to the fact that by adding it to woodwork, which is the more common form of handwork in the schools, experience in tool processes becomes broadened and enriched, but chiefly it is due to the fact that art metalwork adds to handwork instruction a valuable means of art expression. The opinion is now general that manual training should lead out beyond the mere mechanical and utilitarian into the realm of graceful, free expression of beauty of form and color and design. Because metal is so free from troublesome grain, because it is so ductile and easily shaped under certain conditions and so rigid under others, because it is so capable of pleasing effects of color and finish, and because of its relation to the natural sciences, it seems preeminently fitted to become one of the most popular of the materials of art expression in the schools, while at the same time serving as a medium for training in manual dexterity.

TitleArt Metalwork With Inexpensive Equipment
AuthorArthur F. Payne
PublisherThe Manual Arts Press
Year1914
Copyright1914, Arthur F. Payne
AmazonArt Metalwork with Inexpensive Equipment

Art Metalwork With Inexpensive Equipment For The Public Schools And For The Craftsman

By Arthur F. Payne, Assistant Professor of Manual Arts, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Illinois

Silver plate, XVIth century In Metropolitan Museum, New York City.

Silver plate, XVIth century In Metropolitan Museum, New York City.

-Foreword
Among the leading teachers of the manual arts in the schools there is a growing interest in art metalwork. This is due in part to a recognition of the increasing importance of metal as a material of c...
-Preface
Ever since the introduction of manual training into this country it has been in a continual state of growth and adjustment. Wood has always been the principal medium and while there are numerous schoo...
-Chapter I. The Influence Of The Arts And Crafts Movement Upon Manual Training
Enough has been said about the arts and crafts movement since its inception, to run the entire gamut of human opinion. But there is one phase of its influence about which very little has been said, an...
-The Missing Elements Supplied
The criticism that is being made nowadays of our school system is that it has no vital connection with our economic or social system, and that it has not kept pace with the development of commerce and...
-Chapter II. The Correlation Of Metalwork And Design
Until a few years ago design was taught with only pencil, paper, and a little color as the necessary materials. At the present time we use clay, leather, wood, reed, raffia, and textile materials, iro...
-The Correlation Of Metalwork And Design. Continued
The designing of the next problem, the paper-knife, is similar to that of the watch-fob, and gives further practice in the rules and principles of design already familiar. The added feature of raising...
-I. Historical
Copper is one of the six metals mentioned in the Old Testament, and is the most important of the seven mentioned by ancient historians. It was known and used by the people seven generations after Adam...
-II. Production Of Copper
Copper and its alloys are the first metals that we find any mention made of in history, and there are numerous objects made of copper or its alloys in existence today that the leading arche-ologists c...
-III. The Ores Of Copper
There are nearly 200 distinct copper ores, but the principal copper ores of commercial importance may be divided into seven classes, as follows: Native copper, existing alone or practically so, as in...
-IV. Methods Of Obtaining Copper From Its Ores
There are three general methods of extracting copper from its ores. The dry, wet, and electrolytic methods. The wet method is used the least of the three, and consists in placing the ores in an acid s...
-V. Commercial Forms Of Copper
In the United States copper is usually roughly divided into three grades: Lake copper, that which is obtained from the mines of the Lake Superior region; electrolytic copper, that which has been refin...
-Chapter IV. Alloys Of Copper
An alloy is a combination of two or more metals mixed together in varying proportions while melted. Alloys of various metals may be formed that have certain desirable qualities possessed by none of th...
-Brass
Brass, the most common and useful of the alloys, is a combination of copper and zinc in varying proportions. High brass consists of copper 65 per cent, and zinc 35 per cent. It is called high brass b...
-Other Alloys
A few of the most useful and well known copper alloys are: Aluminum bronze, copper 90 per cent, aluminum 10 per cent. German Silver, copper 62 per cent, zinc 20 per cent, nickel 18 per cent. Babbit...
-Chapter V. Metal Gages
The thickness of sheet metals is measured by a small instrument called a gage. It is a flat circular disk of hardened steel with slots in the edge, Fig. 1. The slots are numbered, the smallest one int...
-Chapter VI. Coloring And Finishing Art Metalwork
The coloring and finishing of art metalwork is a very important factor in its success whether viewed from a commercial, artistic, or educational standpoint. It is of importance commercially because ar...
-The Bright Dips
When using the acid dip method on copper and brass the work must be fastened to a piece of copper or brass wire (do not use iron wire), and hung in the solution for about five to thirty seconds, the...
-The Satin Dips
Beside these so called bright dips there is another class of dips that are handled in the same way, but give a slightly different result. These are called satin dips. They are very similar to the ...
-Coloring Solutions
There are many recipes for obtaining various color effects upon copper, some of which are expensive and difficult to handle, and others require considerable skill in their application. Some of the sta...
-Applying Silver Solutions
There are also some interesting methods of applying a thin coat of silver to copper articles, and while this method is not recommended for very extensive use, still some very good effects can be produ...
-Gilding And Bronzing
Copper and brass can be gilded by using the following solution: distilled water, 1 quart; 6 pennyweights of gold converted into chloride, potassium bicarbonate, 16 ounces. To prepare this solution for...
-Antique Finishes
Another standard method of finishing copper is to give it any of the many various green finishes that are known on the market and in the trade as Antique Patina, Verde antique, Pompei Green, Gr...
-Finishes For Brass Only
The foregoing recipes are for copper and brass where so stated and the following are for brass only: No. 1. To obtain a dark antique finish on brass apply butter of antimony to the brass and allow it...
-Finishes For Silver
To oxidize silver any of the following may be used: No. 1. Dissolve in 1 pint of water 1 cubic inch of sulphide of potassium, and apply to the silver. No. 2. Slightly warm the silver article and app...
-Lacquering And Waxing
Lacquer serves on metal the same purpose that varnish does on wood; that is, preserves the color and the finish. The commercial lacquers are rather expensive and are not always easy to obtain. No. 1....
-Chapter VII. Sources Of Materials And Equipment
The following is a list of reliable firms that will supply tools, material, and equipment for art metalwork. The numbers of the tools shown in the illustrations are the same as the numbers given in ca...
-Chapter VIII. Etching, Soft Soldering
We hear and read a great deal nowadays about the correlation of design with handwork and manual training. We all know and admit that it is necessary and good, but how are we to do it and what material...
-Etching
One of the simplest and most interesting processes in sheet metalworking is that of etching. It requires very,simple equipment, and will show to the student the value of careful, painstaking work. Of ...
-Coloring And Finishing
After the fob is etched, shaped, hammered, and the slit cut in, Ave have next to color and finish it. In coloring copper. Ave can get all the shades of color from light brown to black with a solution ...
-Chapter IX. Etching, Straight Bending, Lapping
To make the articles described in this chapter, the following new tools and equipment will be required, in addition to the tools noted in chapter VIII (Etching, Soft Soldering): Base-plate, No. 151 F...
-Straight Bending
The next problem in the graded series that we are following is that of the blotter, Figs. 12 and 14. For this we shall require one piece of soft copper or brass, 18-gage (Brown-Sharpe gage) 4 1/2 lon...
-Lapping
The next problem in order is that of the desk-pad corner. The size may be from 2 to 4 along the side, with 1/2 allowed on each side to turn under. The method of laying and cutting out is shown in F...
-Chapter X. Saw-Piercing
Before continuing with the series of graded problems, attention may he called to two supplementary problems similar to the book-end described in Chapter IX (Etching, Straight Bending, Lapping). The c...
-Drawer-Pulls
Next we have the making of the handles and pulls for drawers, bookcases, cabinets, etc., similar to those shown in Figs. 27 and 31. A pull or handle is made up of three parts: the back, the handle, an...
-Chapter XI. Annealing, Riveting, Seaming
We have now reached the end of the first distinct division in the series of problems which we have been following. Up to this point the problems have been what we might call flat-work and straight be...
-Annealing
After the metal has been hammered and raised partly into shape it will get hard and stiff, and it will be necessary to anneal it. This may be done over the Bunsen burner or over a gas range, in a f...
-Riveting
We now have three pieces of copper that are shaped and hammered ready to be riveted together. The rivets may be of copper tacks cut off to the required length. Drill a hole the diameter of the tack in...
-Seaming
To make the round candlestick, make a paper pattern of the pillar, remembering that the top must be large enough to hold the ink-well, also to allow enough extra metal at the seam to lap over and rive...
-Chapter XII. Construction, Raising, Planishing
The next problem of this series is the electric lantern, the construction of which involves straight bending, riveting, and raising, the same as the candlesticks shown in chapter XI (Annealing, Riveti...
-Raising
The progressive steps for-the raising of the lantern-top are shown in Fig. 48. No. 1 is the flat piece of metal cut 1/2 larger than the finished top. No. 2 is the way it should look after beating i...
-Planishing
The term planishing meant to the metalworkers of years ago the process of smoothing and stiffening the metal by hammering it carefully with the smooth flat face of a planishing hammer. In our case it ...
-Finishing With Wax
For finishing the lantern a new process is suggested, that of waxing. This finish is much better for the larger pieces than banana oil. The wax finish is prepared and used in the following manner: In ...
-Chapter XIII. Beating Down, Fluting, Modeling
The square smoking set, Fig. 58, is shown not as a regular problem in this course, but to give some idea of the possibilities that lie in the development of the processes of bending and riveting. It w...
-Beating Down
Next beat down the depression in the plate. Draw a line with the pencil dividers where the depression starts; then hold the plate on the end of a block of wood and beat it down on the edge of the bloc...
-Acid Cleaning Solution
Annealing a piece of work usually makes it dark and dirty, owing to a thin coating of black oxide that forms on copper when it is heated. To clean it, immerse for about ten minutes in a solution of on...
-Fluting And Modeling
To make the fluted and modeled plates shown in Fig. 67, first lap the edge, then beat down the depression, and anneal as described before. Then get a piece of hard wood about 8 long, 2 wide, and 1 ...
-Chapter XIV. Outline Chasing, Raising
At this particular stage in the development of this course, the problems that could be made are so numerous and the possible development of processes so extensive, that it seems worth while to call at...
-Outline Chasing
In this course we have thus far used four decorative processes outside of coloring, namely, etching, saw-piercing, planishing with the neck hammer, fluting and modeling. The electric light dome shown ...
-Raising A Bowl
The next regular problem in our series, the small bowl, is distinctly a raising problem; that is, it is completed entirely by the process of raising from a single flat piece of metal. There are thr...
-Chapter XV. Raising, Fluting, Paneling, Necking In
The problem of making the small bowl described in.Chapter XIV (Outline Chasing, Raising) leads naturally to the problem of the nut-bowl, which is the same in principle, using the same tools and method...
-Fluting
After the bowl has been raised to a form that is true and even, we are ready for the process of fluting, the first step of which is to divide the bowl into 5, 6, or 7 parts by drawing vertical pencil ...
-Convex Fluting
The flutes described above are concave flutes. There is also the convex flute, shown in the bowls in Fig. 88. This type of flute is made by placing a piece of iron or hard wood, filed to the approxima...
-Paneling
There is still another development of this characteristic means of modifying the shape of a bowl and that is by paneling the sides, as shown in Fig. 89. This is done by making a paneling block, a pi...
-Necking In
The logical progression in the series of problems that we are following brings ns to the interesting process of necking in; that is, drawing a nut-bowl, vase, jardiniere, or pitcher, in sharply near...
-Chapter XVI. Raising By Coursing, Hard Soldering
In Chapters XIV and XV an illustrated description was given of the simplest method of raising a shape from the flat metal without seaming. Reference was made to three distinct methods of raising such ...
-Raising By Coursing
In the illustration of the two pitchers, Fig. 97, it will readily be seen that it would be impossible to raise such shapes entirely by the first method, that of beating into a hollow block from the in...
-Making The Handles
Three distinct types of handles are shown in the illustrations. The handle of the small pitcher in Fig. 97 was made by heating a piece of 1/4 round wire red hot and hammering and forging it into the ...
-Hard Soldering
The handles and spouts on such objects as kettles, tea-pots, and pitchers, are usually soldered into place with hard silver solder, and should seldom be riveted, or soldered with soft solder. There ar...
-Chapter XVII. Raising By Wrinkling, Seaming
In chapters XIV and XV instructions were given for raising bowls and other forms by the simplest method - beating into a hollow in a block. The second method, raising by coursing, was presented in...
-Planishing With A Core Of Pitch
The vase is now ready for planishing. It would be rather difficult to planish a vase such as the one illustrated by the method previously described (Chapter XII (Construction, Raising, Planishing))....
-Chapter XVIII. Cramp Seaming, Repousse, Recess Chasing
In chapter XVII (Raising By Wrinkling, Seaming) the method of making a seamed vase was described. That method of plain seaming is perfectly satisfactory for a vase that is not to have its general sh...
-Seaming, Square Corners
There is one other method of making a shape that cannot be made by any of the methods previously described, and that is the method used in making the flower jar shown in Fig. 126. This piece is square...
-Chasing
Repousse and chasing are synonymous terms for the same kind of work and process. Repousse is the French term, and chasing and chased work are the English terms. As the term chasing is that which is in...
-Recess Chasing
Fig. 136 shows a slightly different type of chasing that is comparatively easy of execution. It is known as recess chasing. The rings that run clear around the vase are simply two lines close toget...
-Chapter XIX. Enameling
Enameling is a process the technical explanation of which is easily given and readily understood, and at the same time it is a process that taxes the patience and artistic skill of the experienced wor...
-Enameling. Continued
In the case of the jar cover the cells were made by the chasing method, Fig. 143. The cover was filled with chaser's pitch, then stuck on to the pitch block,15 and the design was outlined with the tr...
-Chapter XX. Spoon-Making
There is one problem in art metalwork - spoon-making - that has a distinctive charm of its own. Every worker in metal sooner or later wants to make a spoon. Handmade spoons are invariably of copper or...
-Books
Some Recent Books Published By The Manual Arts Press Peoria, Illinois Handcraft In Wood And Metal. By J. Hooper And A. J. Shirley A valuable reference book on craftwork in wood and metal. It treats...









TOP
previous page: Motor Truck Design And Construction | by  C. T. Schaefer
  
page up: Craft and Hobby Books
  
next page: The Manual Of Receipts | by Sidney Paine Johnston