To beat gold, put same into a stone crucible, melt and pour it into a mold, thus giving it a right width for rolling. Run it through rollers whose pressure is such that a bar of gold 1 inch thick, say, and about 3 inches long, after being rolled several times, becomes a strip about 14 yards long and as thick as a hair. These strips are to be cut into inch squares, which are put into a receptacle technically known as a "cutch," made of 180 skins, 3 1/2 inches square. Vellum is a good substance to use for these skins. Alternate the gold squares and the pieces of skin until the "cutch" is filled up. Then beat the cutch for about a quarter of an hour with a 16-lb hammer, take out the gold, divide it into quarters with a skewer and put them in a shoder. The skins in a shoder come from the bum-gut of an ox, each animal furnishing but two skins. These shoder skins are 4 inches square and the gold squares are alternated in them the same as they were in the cutch. After beating them for about one and a half hours, with a 10-lb. hammer, they are taken out and quartered with a small piece of reed. Then put them in a mold until the latter is filled and beat with a 7-lb. hammer for three or four hours. The leaf is then ready for trimming. It will be observed that with each successive beating the length of time becomes longer and the size of the hammer smaller.