For soldering without a soldering-iron, use a fine solder composed of:
1 part Tin,
2 parts Bismuth, 2 parts Lead.
Next solder a piece with solder composed of:
4 parts Tin, 4 parts Lead, 1 part Bismuth.
The coarse solder used by pewterers is formed of tin, 3 parts; lead, 4; and bismuth, 2; the fine, of tin, 2; lead, 1; bismuth. 1.
Plumbers' coarse solder is composed of the following: Tin, 1 part; lead, 3 parts.
Plumbers' fine solder is composed of the following: Tin, 1 part; lead, 2 parts.
Plumbers' sealed solder is composed of the following: Tin, 1 part; lead, 2 parts.
The best flux for use with silver solder is borax. Silver solder may be melted in fire or with the use of a blow-pipe.
Silver solder for jewelers is composed of the following: Silver, 19 parts; copper, 1 part; brass, 1 part.
Silver solder for plating is composed of: Silver, 2 parts; copper, 1 part; brass, 1 part.
Silver solder for steel joints is composed of the following: Silver, 19 parts; copper, 1 part; brass, 1 part.
(2) More fusible: Silver, 5 parts; brass, 5 parts: zinc, 5 parts.
The brass should be made of 70 per cent. Copper, 30 per cent. Tin.
Spelter solder is made from equal parts of zinc and copper. When used for brazing the parts should be heated red-hot in a crucible with a flux of borax and charcoal dust, and the addition of the zinc should be made.
(2) Solder of hard spelter (from spelter, the commercial name given to plates of manufactured zinc) is used for joining copper, and is prepared from copper (16 parts) and zinc (12 parts). For soldering brass this formula is changed to one of equal parts copper and zinc, forming the solder known as soft spelter.
Tinners' solder is composed of the following: Tin, 1 1/2 parts; lead, 1 part.
Tinners' fine solder is composed of the following: Tin, 2 parts; lead, 1 part.
Wire solder, such as is sold to housewives to be used by melting it with a candle, is made as follows: Make a small hole in the bottom of any tin vessel, and allow melted solder to flow through this aperture, while moving the vessel along over an iron surface. Most of the stuff sold by peddlers contains bismuth, and is deleterious when used on culinary utensils.
This alloy, commonly used for the manufacture of metallic reflectors, is white in color, and has a hard surface not easily scratched or tarnished. It contains from 64 to 69 per cent. of copper and 30 to 35 per cent. of tin. The white color is made more conspicuous by the addition of small quantities of arsenic and antimony.