An egg-beater drill is used to make holes in metal. Place metal on piece of scrap wood, and clamp both to workbench, so that when the drill has perforated the metal, it will sink into the scrap wood instead of into the workbench surface. A small indentation should be made with a punch or a nail, so the end of the drill will settle in the depression and will not slip around (Fig. Vl-11a). Place drill in the depression, holding upright with left hand, exerting a little pressure to keep in place. Turn handle clockwise to make the hole. Remove drill by pulling with left hand, continuing the turn of the drill (Fig. VI-11 b).
Heavy metal, such as a heavy can, may require the use of a chisel and hammer to make a cut. The chisel is placed on the spot, and a sharp blow of the hammer on end of chisel forces it through the metal. The chisel is then moved along the line, and action repeated. Sometimes it is possible to cut with the chisel at an angle, continuing the cut smoothly without removing and replacing chisel (Fig. VI-12 a). Use of a log the size of the inside of can simplifies the cutting, as the log holds the shape of the can and prevents it from buckling (Fig. VI-12 b).
When edges of metal are not turned under to make a fold, they must be smoothed with a file. Large metal files used for outside edges are. either flat or half round. Needle files used for small edges, as in the center of pierced designs, may be triangular, round, oval, flat, or half round, making it possible to smooth edges in very small places.
To file an edge: hold metal piece against bench pin, in vise, or on edge of workbench with left hand, and file with forward strokes of the file in right hand, lifting at end of stroke (Fig. VI-13). If metal is clamped in vise, left hand may be used to guide and to lift the file (Fig. VI-14). File teeth do not cut on backward pull.
To file outside of curve-, hold as above, and make the forward stroke incline or conform to the direction of the curve, rocking the file up and over the curve (Fig. VI-15).
To file inside of curve: hold metal on edge (Fig. VI-16) and file with the rounded side of half-round file, filing at right angles to metal.
To use needle files: hold file in vertical position, and use in same manner as saw and frame, above (Fig. VI-17).
Metal parts are fastened to other metal parts by soldering, by riveting, by nailing or screwing, or by the slit and tab method. The simpler types of projects described in this chapter do not call for soldering in the usual method using blow torch and solder, since most camps will not have equipment for this. Fine jewelry work or projects with pewter, copper, and silver will require the blow torch method.
Liquid solder, which may be purchased in tubes at any hardware store, may be used for simple projects. The surfaces to be joined are cleaned with steel wool, a small amount of solder is spread on, the pieces are clamped together and left for several hours (Fig. VI-18). Follow directions on the specific tube.
Riveting is a method of joining metals by a small metal rivet. Drill a hole through both pieces of metal; place rivet in hole so head of rivet is on top, or where it will be most readily seen (Fig. VI-19 a). Turn piece over, and hammer edges of rivet on underside, spreading to create a flange which will hold rivet in place (Fig. VI-19 b). Handles or seams may be fastened in this way, and the rivet may become part of the design of the article. These are not split rivets such as are used to fasten leather.
Screwing and nailing are used to fasten metal to wood, as in securing metal hinges to a book cover or applying a metal design to a wooden surface. Drill small holes in desired places with egg-beater drill, and use tiny brass screws or escutcheon pins to go through metal into wood (Fig. VI-20). Escutcheon pins are small nails with convex head and with short (about 14") shanks, usually of copper or brass.
Slit and tab method is used in putting together parts of such metal objects as a lantern or box (Fig. VI-21). See Figures VI-46-49.
Design may be applied to metal by a number of methods, some of which have to do with marking the surface with metal tools, some with cutting out designs, and some with etching with chemicals.