This is a simple project for beginners; it may be made with cord in single, double, or triple strands.
Equipment needed: knife; peg or nail; sandpaper and wax for toggle.
Materials needed: small, cord, chalk line or mason's twine, or seine twine; 12" piece of smaller cord or twine for whipping; toggle.
1. To measure: the length of one strand is equal to waist measure plus 6 inches. Cut 2 strands this length; and a third strand equal to the others, plus 14 inches.
2. Pull longest strand so there is a loop (about 2") at one end (Fig. 11-23 x) ; gather loop and two other strands together; stitch and cover with whipping (see Figs. II-6, 7, 23 x). Cut loop at opposite end (Fig. 11-23).
3. To braid: hang loop on peg, and braid evenly to end (Fig. 11-25). Cross left strand over center strand; cross right strand over center strand (1 over 2, 3 over 1, 2 over 3, 1 over 2). Repeat.
4. Braid to desired length, allowing for equal distance at toggle end, to correspond with loop end (Fig. 11-26).
5. Attach toggle with longest cord, putting through hole, and back to other ends of cord; stitch all together, cut off extra ends; cover with whipping (Fig. 11-26).
Variations: Use seine twine, with double or triple strands of varying colors:
This is a more advanced braiding project; it offers a wide range of color combinations. The braiding should be practiced on a practice strip before attempting the project.
Equipment needed: knife; sandpaper and wax for toggle or buckle.
Materials needed: seine twine in one, two, or three colors; 12" piece of smaller string for whipping; wooden toggle or buckle.
1. To measure and cut: 12 strands, in three colors as follows-2 strands of color A for core; 4 strands of color B;
6 strands of colbr C. The length of each strand is the waist measure plus 6 inches. Add 14" on end of any one or two strands for buckle loops (color A strands shown here-Fig. 11-27).
2. Lay lengths of twine on table, so that one loop (one or two strands) extends desired length, and all other loops are together (Fig. 11-27). Fasten these together by stitching and covering with whipping (see preceding pages). Cut loops at other end (Fig. 11-27 Z).
3. Arrange strands so A strands make center core. Put loop over peg, and fasten core strands (A) so that they are taut (Fig. 11-28). Arrange other strands so that there are 2 strands of color B and 3 strands of color C on each side. Keep strands lying side by side-never twisted.
4. To braid: take 3 strands of C in each hand, bring over B strand, cross them in back of core A; pick up 2 strands of B, bring around under C strands and cross on top of core (Fig. 11-28). Repeat throughout length of core, to desired length.
Make the braiding firm by pulling the strands outward rather than down, thus giving a rounded look to this particular braiding (Fig. 11-29). The braiding follows a simple formula: C's over B's and cross in back, and B's under C's and cross in front.
At end of belt use the long strands to attach to buckle (see preceding pages) (Fig. 11-30).
This is a beginner's project, using a "fancy" knot. Single cord may be used, but ordinarily double strands of seine twine in interesting color combinations are used.
Equipment needed: knife; equipment to make toggle or buckle (see Chap. X on Woodworking).
Materials needed: seine twine in 2 colors, or small cord; 12" piece of string to whip ends, in appropriate color; toggle or buckle.
Read directions for measuring belt first. Practice on a short practice piece of single cord; Figures 11-31 and 32 show the knot; directions for the belt are given for double strands of seine twine.
1. To make carrick bend: use a practice piece of a small cord, hung over a peg. Make a loop of right-hand cord A, with long end of cord on top of loop (Fig. 11-31); hold this loop in place, on top of left-hand cord B, with left hand.
Take left-hand cord in right hand; bring end over long strand formed by loop of A, then up on right, in back of A, over A, under B and out to left, over A, weaving under and over from right to left (Fig. 11-32).
Pull cord through, and adjust strands at loops in middle of knot, making the loops even. A and B strands will hang down, ready for next knot. Ease strands into place, and pull evenly (Fig. 11-36). Knot need not be untied to adjust.
2. To measure for belt: the length of one strand is equal to 4 times the waist measure, with the knots approximately 1apart. When double strands are used, the strand to be on the outside of knots should be 3" to 4" longer than the inside strand (Fig. 11-34-outside strands A, inside strands B). If knots are to be closer together, make strands longer as desired. Measure and cut one strand each of A and B colors; divide in half, so there are loops at one end, ends at the other (Fig. 11-33); arrange colors as desired (illustrations show A strands on outside, B strands on inside; they might be arranged with double strands of one color on right, double strands of other color on left).
3. To make belt: fasten loops with whipping (Fig. 11-34) and hang on peg.
Use the two right-hand strands A-B as one, and the two left-hand strands as the other working strand; make a carrick bend, as above, spacing about life" from the whipping.
Pull knot evenly, not too tight; adjust by pulling loops at sides.
Repeat knots to end, being sure the knots are pulled evenly and spaced the same distance apart; take care to keep the outside strands on the outside of knots (Figs. 11-35 and 36).
Put one (or two) strands through buckle or toggle and loop back to end of knotting (Fig. 11-37); stitch ends together, trim and cover with whipping (see Figs. II-6-9).
Square knotting is a good step in progression; belts may be made of any combination of 4 strands-4, 8, 12, 16, etc. -depending on desired width of belt, size of cord, and size of buckle to be used. The simplest square knot belts are made with 4 or 8 strands; the illustrated project is for a 12-strand belt of small cord.
Equipment needed: peg or nail; knife; large-eyed needle.
Materials needed: small hard cord (Belfast, Deny, or Dreadnaught, etc.) in desired colors; metal or wooden buckle.
1. To make knot: practice on practice piece of 4 strands of small cord. Hang practice piece on peg; fasten two inside strands to belt for core (Figs. II-4 and 5) to keep taut.
Lay left-hand strand A over core; bring right-hand strand B down over A at right of core, under in back of core and up through space between left side of core and A (Fig. 11-38). Pull A and B out to right (A) and and left (B), and make knot even and tight at top of core.
Reverse, laying A across core from right to left; bring B down over A at left of core, under core, and up through space between right side of core and A, and out to right
(Fig. 11-39). Pull out to left (A) and to right (B), close against first part of knot.
Repeat as desired, for flat knots.
To make spiral knots: repeat first step for square knot (Fig. 11-38), always beginning with strand on same side (Fig. 11-40).
2. To measure strands: one strand is equal to 7 times waist measure; cut as many strands as desired; 6 such strands will be required for the 12-strand belt illustrated. Plan colors before measuring and cutting.
Divide strands in half, so the loops are at one end, and the cut ends at the other.
3. To make belt: plan design for combining colors in strands. Attach strands to buckle, fastening at center of strands with lark's head knot (see Figs. 11-22 and 41).
Hang buckle on peg, and arrange some way of keeping the core strands taut by tying to belt, etc. (see Figs. 11-4 and 5).
Knot as desired, according to plan. Sometimes join the strands in the middle, dropping outside strands, and picking up later (Fig. 11-42).
To make a solid section of knots, make one row of double knots all across belt; next row, drop the two outside strands on each edge, and make two knots in center; next row, repeat the first. Pull knots tight to get a solid effect (Fig. 11-43).
To end belt: taper knots off so there is a point in center (Fig. 11-44) ; with a needle, run ends back into belt, and trim off excess cord. Or, take left-hand strand and hold it diagonally across the belt to lowest point in center (Fig. 11-44). Make a series of half hitches (Fig. 11-45) with every strand the diagonal crosses, to center. Start with extreme right-hand strand and repeat half hitch process. Tie square knot in center. Cut off excess cord. Dip end in water to make knots swell, and ends will remain secure (or run ends back, as above).
Flat braiding is done with flat strands of some flexible material, such as leather. It is a good project for beginners in leather work. The strips may be cut; but for beginners, the ready-cut belt strips, obtainable from leather handcraft supply houses, will prove most satisfactory. Greatest satisfaction, of course, comes when the craftsman is able to cut his own. See Chap. V on Leatherwork for cutting leather.
Equipment needed: ruler; leather punching and fastening tools; leather cement.
Materials needed: strip of cowhide or similar leather, desired width and length, cut in narrow strips to within 6" of one end; 6" strip for finishing; metal or wooden buckle; small piece of lacing.
1. Braid as follows: bring strand 1 over 2 so it is next to 3 (Fig. 11-46). Bring strand 4 under 3 and over 1. Continue these two steps, bringing outer strand at left over the strand at its right, and the outer right strand under strand at its left.
Use both hands simultaneously, keeping the same tension throughout length of belt. Be sure smooth side of leather is kept on top (Fig. 11-47). Braid until belt is required length. Hold with elastic band.
2. To finish: cut solid end of belt into point (Fig. 11-48) and punch three or more holes, making middle hole the correct belt measure, allowing for buckle strip.
Punch slot in extra piece of leather by making two holes, and joining, for the tongue of buckle (Fig. 11-49).
Cut off any surplus strands on braided belt, to make belt desired length (Fig. 11-50) allowing 2 inches. Place buckle and cement strips in place inside the folded strip (Fig. 11-50). Clamp and allow to dry. Punch holes around edge, and lace, tucking ends of lacing underneath (Fig. 11-51).
Hammer with rawhide mallet; polish with shoe polish or wax.
Variation: Five-strand flat braiding differs only slightly from braiding with four strands. Start with strand 1 at left, and bring over 2, next to 3. Bring 5 at outer right over 4, under 3, and over 1 (Fig. 11-52). To continue, repeat these two steps, bringing outer left strand over strand at its right, then outer right strand over strand at its left, under next, over next (Fig. 11-53).