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Motor Truck Design And Construction | by C. T. Schaefer



This volume has boon written to fill a pressing want; to give a practical discussion of the gasoline propelled commercial car of the present type, and to present this subject in the plainest possible manner by the use of numerous illustrations. In other words, this work is compiled for the engineer, who, when he desires information on current practice, may quickly obtain the same without a general study. At the same time a general outline of the underlying principles is given for the student, commercial vehicle owner and operator who may desire to familiarize himself with the construction of the various units that make up the complete vehicle. The author feels confident that he has been successful in the production of a serviceable treatise on the subject of Motor Truck design and construction.

TitleMotor Truck Design And Construction
AuthorC. T. Schaefer
PublisherD. Van Nostrand Company
Year1919
Copyright1919, D. Van Nostrand Company
AmazonMotor Truck Design And Construction
-Chapter I. The General Layout Of The Chassis
Any commercial vehicle conforming to the accepted standard of construction may be divided in two parts, the chassis and the body. The chassis or running gear as it is sometimes called, consists of the...
-The General Layout Of The Chassis. Continued
Disadvantages Of This Type Like all other constructions the above type offers certain disadvantages. The overall length of the vehicle must be greater in order to permit the location of the motor und...
-Chapter II. The Motor Truck Engine - Its Construction And Lubrication. Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors
This term cycle is defined as the cycle of operations or, in other words, the successive actions of the working fluid of a heat engine upon the piston and of the piston upon the working fluid commenci...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 2
Cycle Of Operations In A Two Cycle Motor The Four-Cycle Type The same operations occur in the fourcycle type of motor; however, they require two complete revolutions of the crank shaft or four pisto...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 3
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Both Types Of Motors In the two-cycle motor we find that both the exhaust and transfer ports are open together for certain periods, and it can readily be understood th...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 4
Multi-Cylinder Engines For small moderate powers a single-cylinder engine possesses the advantages of the simplest possible construction, inexpensive to manufacture and maintain, and more economical ...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 5
It was stated above that the piston travel was a reciprocating motion while the crank shaft revolution was a rotary motion, and that it was necessary to convert this reciprocating motion into rotary m...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 6
T-Head A type in which all valves are located in pockets at opposite sides of the cylinders. L-Head A type in which all valves are located side by side in one pocket, on either right or left side o...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 7
The Valve Operating Mechanism And The Crank Case Having described the functions of the valves in their respective cylinders, we can next consider how their operation is accomplished, at the proper ti...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 8
Unit Power Plants Quite a few of the commercial vehicles use the unit power plant in which the gear box or transmission is bolted directly to a housing cast integral with the case and surrounding the...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 9
Fig. 20 illustrates a bottom view of a crank case for the L-head motor. It shows the camshaft and crankshaft in position, with the connecting rods mounted on the crank pins. But one camshaft is used, ...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 10
Motor Lubrication Developments in the line of motor lubrication as a matter of course follow on the heels of progress in the art of motor design and construction, for the increase of efficiency which...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 11
The disadvantages of this system are apparent. The oil level varied constantly and so did the rate of supply to the bearing surfaces. When the crank case was replenished, the oil level was raised cons...
-Two And Pour-Cycle Multi-Cylinder Motors. Part 12
Fig. 27 illustrates a sectional view of a full force feed system of lubrication which is built into the motor. Oil is carried in a reservoir bolted to the crank case and is circulated by a gear pump m...
-Chapter III. The Motor Cooling System
Continuing from the previous chapter we can next investigate the cooling system, considering first the office of the cooling system. This system must cool the cylinder walls to such an extent as to pe...
-The Motor Cooling System. Continued
Mounting Of Radiators Radiators may be mounted in two positions on the chassis frame; either in front of the car so that the air currents pass almost unobstructed through the passageways, or in back ...
-Chapter IV. Carburetion And Carburetors
Carburetion is the term applied to the process of converting the liquid fuel into an explosive mixture. It comprises the vaporization of the fuel and the mixing of gasoline and air in the proper propo...
-Carburetion And Carburetors. Part 2
The auxiliary air valves are generally suction operated, opening progressively as the suction increases from higher speed or some other cause. If these valves could be made to have no inertia, they wo...
-Carburetion And Carburetors. Part 3
The Stromberg Carburetor The Stromberg carburetor (Fig. 4C) is a double jet type, featuring an eccentric float chamber with a glass wall, a feature which is typical of all Stromberg models. The flow ...
-Chapter V. Ignition Systems. High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types
A considerable number of articles have been written on ignition systems, with the object of explaining the operation of the magneto and battery systems. However, the writer will attempt to cover this ...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 2
Magnetic Lines Of Force It has been found by experiment that there is an attractive and repulsive force between magnets, and that this magnetic force pervades the surrounding space. The fact that a m...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 3
The Condenser To avoid this, a condenser is used, which is built into the magneto. This condenser consists of two sets of tinfoil sheets, sheets of opposite sets alternating with each other, and bein...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 4
Function Of The Switch In order to stop the magneto from producing sparks, when it is desired to shut down the motor, a switch is provided. One terminal of the switch is grounded to the engine or fra...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 5
Low-Tension Magneto And Battery Systems As mentioned in the above, all systems using a spark plug are termed high-tension systems; however, a low-tension magneto may be used with a transformer coil. ...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 6
The most popular type is the tube coil with switch, which can be mounted on the dash under the hood with switch on the outside, within reach of the operator. In some cases the coil is made separately ...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 7
These segments are held in position by screw bolts which pass through the fiber ring and housing, hut are insulated from the latter. These screw bolts are provided with thumb nuts and terminals to whi...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 8
Inductor Magnetos The magnetos described previously, generating either high or low-tension current, were built on the principle of placing the winding or windings on the armature core, so as to rotat...
-High-Tension Magnetos Of Independent And Dual Types. Part 9
As the inductors approach position A, the magnetism through the winding is increasing and as they leave that position the magnetism begins to decrease, without changing its direction. The direction of...
-Chapter VI. Governors And Speed-Controlling Devices
Commercial car manufacturers and users are aware of the attendant results of high speeds and heavy loads over rough roads, so that at the present time this subject should be of considerable interest t...
-Governors And Speed-Controlling Devices. Part 2
The Centrifugal Type Fig. 62 illustrates a centrifugal type of governor which has been used by a number of prominent commercial car builders. The governor is placed at the front end of the motor and ...
-Governors And Speed-Controlling Devices. Part 3
The Duplex Governor The Duplex governor shown in Fig. 68 was designed on the principle of a dual actuating influence. This dual influence consists of a motor influence, as to its speed, which is impa...
-Chapter VII. The Clutch And Transmission
The defects in the gasoline engine, relative to its flexibility, have been previously mentioned. Among these is the inability of the motor to develop its full torque from a standstill. The crank shaft...
-The Clutch And Transmission. Part 2
Multiple-Disc Type Multiple disc and plate clutches are based on the same principle as the cone clutch, but constitute in a sense extreme opposites in design. This type offers several advantages not ...
-The Clutch And Transmission. Part 3
Band Type Band clutches are practically the same in general principle of operation, as band brakes, and are of the same general types, internal expanding and external contracting. This type of clutch...
-The Clutch And Transmission. Part 4
Transmission Types The most popular transmissions are the friction, planetary and sliding gear. The friction and planetary, with few exceptions, are only used on the light vehicles, while the sliding...
-The Clutch And Transmission. Part 5
Progressive Sliding Type In the progressive type of transmission all sliding gears are moved simultaneously when a speed change is made. The several speeds are arranged in a fixed succession as the c...
-Chapter VIII. Universal Joint And Propeller Shaft
There is a difficulty in transmitting the power of the motor to the transmission or rear axle which has to be met by a special piece of mechanism. In the chain-driven vehicle the motor and transmissio...
-Universal Joint And Propeller Shaft. Part 2
The Evans Joint The Evans joint (Fig. 91) is also of the trunnion type with trunnion blocks located in diametrically opposite slots; however, the outer walls of these slots are curved in the directio...
-Universal Joint And Propeller Shaft. Part 3
Fabric Joints Leather and fabric universal joints have been used for some time because they present several features not obtainable with the mechanical type. The principle advantages are silent opera...
-Chapter IX. The Differential
Another unit of the power transmission system which must be used is the differential. It is a well-known fact that in turning a curve the outer wheels travel faster than the inner ones. To compensate ...
-The Differential. Part 2
Another form of differential which has been extensively used is known as the spur type illustrated in Fig. 105. The action of this can be best explained by comparison with the bevel type. The bevel ge...
-The Differential. Part 3
When both wheels are on firm ground and the vehicle is traveling freely, the differential is enabled to act in the usual manner when turning corners, by reason of the fact, already alluded to, that th...
-Chapter X. The Final Drive. Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive
From the transmission the power must be transmitted to another unit from which it is converted into useful work at the road wheels. In commercial car construction this is generally termed the final dr...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 2
On the Peerless truck, the jack shaft is built integral with the transmission as shown in Fig. 113. It is similar to the construction described above, excepting that one set of brakes is mounted on th...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 3
The Bevel-Gear Axle The bevel-gear axle is almost universally used on pleasure cars. However, it is not very popular on commercial cars. being used only on the light vehicles of capacities up to 1,50...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 4
Fig. 121 illustrates a double-reduction axle of one-ton capacity, which was placed on the market several years ago by the Weston Mott Company, and was used on the Menominee. Flint and other light comm...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 5
The Internal-Gear Drive As mentioned above, the internal-gear drive axle is really a double reduction, in which two sets of gears are used. It is also similar to the chain drive in that a jack shaft ...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 6
The Worm Drive In spite of bitter opposition, worm drive has made great strides during the past year, quite a number of makers having added worm-driven models to their line, good axles of this type b...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 7
Bear Axle Types Shaft-driven commercial car axles may be classified according to the arrangement of the wheel bearings. If the end of the drive shaft next to the wheel has a bearing directly upon it,...
-Chain, Bevel, Double Reduction, Internal Gear And Worm Drive. Part 8
There seems to be a very wide difference of opinion as to the relative merits of the various methods, and examples of each type may be found with either type of axle. The method of taking stresses on ...
-Chapter XI. Front- And Four-Wheel Drives
In the foregoing chapters on the final drive, we considered all types of final rear wheel drives. There are also a number of commercial cars, in which the final drive is through the front wheels, and ...
-Front- And Four-Wheel Drives. Part 2
The Meyers Front Drive The Meyers front drive (Fig. 141) is similar to the above types, in that the engine is placed forward of the front axle. The power of the motor is transmitted from the jackshaf...
-Front- And Four-Wheel Drives. Part 3
Live-Axle Drives Another type of four-wheel drive construction is that employing a live front and rear axle: that is. an axle which bub propels the car and carries the weight of the vehicle and load....
-Chapter XII. Motor Truck Brakes
From what has been said of the brakes in discussing the final drive and the various methods of applying the power to the road wheels, it can readily be understood that there would be little uni-formit...
-Motor Truck Brakes. Part 2
Rear-Wheel Brakes On Chain-Drive Models When both brakes are located in the rear wheels, they are generally of the internal expanding type. The reason for this is, should an external brake become dis...
-Motor Truck Brakes. Part 3
Concentric Brakes The G.M.C. construction, Fig. 150, depicts a type employing concentric drums. The internal brake is of the conventional shoe type, fabric-lined, expanded by a cam and operating on t...
-Chapter XIII. The Front Axle
The front axle with its steering gear, knuckle and arms is largely depended upon for the safe control of the vehicle, while it must also carry the forward portion of the vehicle and load. It must be s...
-The Front Axle. Part 2
The Vulcan Front Axle The Vulcan five-ton axle {shown in Fig. 159) offers an example of heavy vehicle construction arranged for fore and aft steering, with the tie rod located to the rear of the axle...
-The Front Axle. Part 3
Packard Axles The new Packard worm-driven trucks are equipped with front axles (Fig. 164), employing the reversed Elliot type of knuckle; however, they are arranged for left side fore and aft steerin...
-Chapter XIV. Steering Gears And Fundamental Principles Of Steering Mechanisms. Certain Principles That Must Be Understood In Designing Them
Some interesting problems pertaining to the design, construction and operation of the modern commercial car are found in the various steering mechanisms employed. Like almost every other important mec...
-Steering Gears And Fundamental Principles Of Steering Mechanisms. Part 2
Inclination Of The Wheel Spindles The spindle upon which the wheel revolves is generally inclined from 1 1/2 to 2 degrees below the horizontal center, while the king bolt about which the wheel pivots...
-Steering Gears And Fundamental Principles Of Steering Mechanisms. Part 3
The Drag Link The drag link may be placed either in a fore-and-aft position or crosswise of the vehicle. The fore-and-aft position is more generally used when the engine is under a hood, while with t...
-Steering Gears And Fundamental Principles Of Steering Mechanisms. Part 4
Wheel And Mast Commercial cars are steered by means of hand wheels located at the upper end of the steering column. The spider of the steering wheels is secured to a shaft which generally passes down...
-Steering Gears And Fundamental Principles Of Steering Mechanisms. Part 5
Worm And Wheel Type The Peerless steering gear (Fig. 178) differs somewhat from those shown above, being of the worm and wheel type with friction controls mounted above the hand wheel. This hand whee...
-Chapter XV. Motor Truck Frames
The chassis frame practically forms the foundation of a commercial car, since all the power-transmitting and other units are attached to it. It is often referred to as the backbone of a commercial car...
-Motor Truck Frames. Part 2
The Rigid Frame The rigid frame, too, has advantages, whether it is of pressed steel or rolled stock. It permits the body to be secured rigidly to it and as it does not give to the inequalities of th...
-Motor Truck Frames. Part 3
The United States 3-Ton Frame The United States 3-ton frame (Fig. 190) is an illustration of the structural or rolled channel frame, combined with steel castings and a construction in which each unit...
-Chapter XVI. Power Plant Mountings
An interesting problem in connection with commercial car designing which merits careful consideration is that of mounting and arranging the power plant so as to protect it from stresses caused by fram...
-Power Plant Mountings. Part 2
The rear support is a large cast member bolted to the flywheel bousing, which has a trunnion formed on each side, and these fit into brackets, that in turn are bolted to hangers riveted to the frame s...
-Power Plant Mountings. Part 3
A similar construction (Fig. 202) is used on the Dr. Kalb commercial cars. However in this case the hinge is placed at the front end of the subframe members, while the rear end has a large drum which ...
-Chapter XVII. Springs And Spring Suspensions
Commercial car bodies are mounted upon the chassis frame, the latter being supported on the axles through the intermediary of steel springs. These springs are built up of a number of plates varying in...
-Springs And Spring Suspensions. Part 2
Mogul Springs In Fig. 207 is shown the Mogul 6-ton rear spring, which is of the semi-elliptic double sweep type with plain ends. These ends fit between the webs of the frame bracket, which has a hard...
-Springs And Spring Suspensions. Part 3
Selden Construction The Selden construction (Fig. 216) has a heavy pressure block which is grooved to take the U-shaped clips and carries a heavy coiled spring which contacts with a bracket riveted t...
-Springs And Spring Suspensions. Part 4
Overload Springs Overload springs may either be of the leaf or coil type, and so arranged as to act only when the load on the main springs reaches a certain amount. Below this load they do not contac...
-Chapter XVIII. The Fuel Supply System
The function of the fuel supply system of a commercial car is to furnish the carburetor with an unfailing supply of gasoline until the supply carried is entirely exhausted. This must be done independe...
-The Fuel Supply System. Continued
Stewart And Autocar The Stewart tank (Fig. 230) is mounted in a wood seat frame. However, steel straps are attached to the tank and form brackets which rest on wood sills. The Autocar tank (Fig. 231...
-Chapter XIX. Controls
The controls of a commercial car consist of the following: the spark, throttle, clutch, change gear lever, brakes and the steering gear. The most important controls are the spark and throttle. The fo...
-Controls. Part 2
Spark And Throttle Controls Various types of these controls were illustraed in Chapter XIV (Steering Gears And Fundamental Principles Of Steering Mechanisms. Certain Principles That Must Be Understoo...
-Controls. Part 3
The Swinging-Lever Type A swinging-lever type of control used on several cars is shown in Fig. 239, and is designed for right-side control and frame mounting. The change gear lever is pivoted to a hu...
-Controls. Part 4
Brake Linkage Unless the breaking force applied to the rear wheels is equalized, that is, that brakes on opposite sides produce equal retarding forces, the car has a tendency to skid and brake. adjus...
-Chapter XX. The Muffler
Although it is not essential that motor trucks operate as quietly as pleasure cars, it is quite essential that they operate without disagreeable noise. For this reason the exhaust must be muffled, whi...
-The Muffler. Part 2
Gray-Hawley Muffler The Gray-Hawley muffler (Fig. 249) is used on a number of commercial cars and consists of two cast heads which support three cylindrical sheet metal tubes. The gases enter the inn...
-Chapter XXI. Motor Truck Wheels
Road shocks must first be taken by the road wheels, through tire contact, and thence distributed, spreading out in all directions from the hubs if the wheels. There are essentially three types of whe...
-Motor Truck Wheels. Continued
Fig. 260. Mogul Wheel Spoke, Felloe and Felloe Band Assembly. Fig. 261. Nash Quad Cast-steel Wheel. Fig. 262. Besco Cast Rear Wheel for Dual Tires. Fig. 263. Spoke Type Cast-Steel Front Whe...
-Chapter XXII. Motor Truck Tires And Rims
In the previous chapters considerable has bees mentioned about tires and their functions. However, in this chapter the con-struction of a motor truck tire and its mounting on the felloe band of the wh...
-Motor Truck Tires And Rims. Part 2
Two Metal-Base Types This metal-base tire is made in two types, the pressed-on and demountable. In the larger cities, the former is quite popular, whereas, in the smaller outlying cities and towns th...
-Motor Truck Tires And Rims. Part 3
Rims Tire rims or metal liases and felloe hands are usually made from flat slock and rolled to shape, and the ends are welded together. Special machinery is used for this purpose and each hand or bas...
-Motor Truck Tires And Rims. Part 4
The Care Of Motor-Truck Tires The care of the motor-truck tire, while an important item in the maintenance of a commercial vehicle, is not generally understood by operators of these vehicles. All man...
-Motor Truck Tires And Rims. Part 5
Speeding A tire which is overspeeded is prematurely destroyed in a manner very similar to that of an overloaded tire. Overspeeding makes every road rough, because it magnifies every irregularity and ...
-Motor Truck Tires And Rims. Part 6
Anti-Skid Devices Anti-skid devices, especially those which are stationary upon the wheel, contribute it great deal toward causing solid rubber tires to give unsatisfactory service. The loose chain i...
-Chapter XXIII. Electric Lighting And Starting On Commercial Trucks. The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Electrically Equipped Trucks
Is electric lighting and starting equipment justifiable on commercial cars? Many engineers consider it an unnecessary complication; others hold that with it economy as well as convenience is gained. A...
-The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Electrically Equipped Trucks. Continued
Disadvantages Discussed The first cost of a commercial vehicle is what engineers have been striving to keep down and simplicity aids low first cost. Electrical equipment will add a certain amount of ...









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