The aim of education is the development of power beneficent to the social organism. To have power in a certain field of activity is equivalent to reacting in the proper way on stimuli pertaining to that field. We may therefore think of education as having a twofold aim: first, to teach how to react; and second, to secure the taking place of the proper reaction. In other words, the result of education should be knowledge plus will-power.

Title | Manual Training - Cardboard Construction |

Author | J. H. Trybom |

Publisher | Milton Bradley Company |

Year | 1899 |

Copyright | 1899, J. H. Trybom |

Amazon | Cardboard Construction |

By J. H. Trybom, Director Of Manual Training, Detroit, Mich Graduate of Harvard College; Sloyd Training School, Boston; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Shopwork, Three Courses); Lehrerbildungsanstalt fur Knabenhandarbeit, Leipzig, Germany

Assisted By Ellen F. O'Connor, Teacher of Drawing, Prince School, Boston; Graduate of Massachusetts State Normal Art School

And Abbie E. Wilson, Teacher in the Perkins School, Boston

Trybom

- Introduction
- A Few Principles. - The aim of education is the development of power beneficent to the social organism. To have power in a certain field of activity is equivalent to reacting in the proper way on sti...

- Introduction. Continued
- The objection might be made that a young child does not care about power, he may not even be conscious of acquiring power through the exercises; he is interested in making something useful for himself...

- Exercises, Instruments, And Material
- Use of Scissors. - Hold the scissors with the thumb and second linger. Cut slowly on the line with light coming from the left. Begin to cut as near the pivot as possible and avoid cutting the whole ...

- Preliminary Lessons
- In large classes it will be found advisable to introduce the work with a few preliminary lessons. The following are suggested: 1st lesson. The use of rule as a measuring instrument. ...

- First Year Plan Of The Exercises
- First YeaR Exercises. Models. Cutting with Scissors. No. 1. Rule. 2. Square Card. 3. Tag. 4. Circular Card....

- No. 1. Rule
- 1. Draw a horizontal line 6 long. 2. Erect perpendiculars at each end, using triangle. 3. Complete rectangle. 4. Mark off distances 1 down from A and B, and connect with a horizontal line. 5. ...

- No. 2. Square Card
- 1. Draw a horizontal line. 3½ long. 2. Erect perpendiculars at A and B, using triangle. 3. Complete sqnare. Note. - Teach the qualities of a square. ...

- No. 3. Tag
- 1. Construct rectangle 4X'2½. 2. Mark off for corners and find place for hole. Note. - Review facts illustrated in previous lessons. The two small triangles cut from the corners, when put togeth...

- No. 4. Circular Card
- Describe a circle, 2 radius. Note. - A preliminary lesson may be given on the use of the compasses. Teach the characteristics of a circle and terms used in connection with the same, as centre, rad...

- No. 5. Equilateral Triangle
- 1. Draw the horizontal line AB. 2. Take A as a centre and AB as radius and describe arc. 3. Take B as centre and same radius and describe arc. 4. Connect point of intersection with A and B. Note...

- No. 8. Hexagonal Card
- 1. Describe a circle, radius 2½ 2½ 2. Draw the horizontal diameter. 3. Set off radius on the circumference from extremities of diameter. 4-. Connect the points, completing the hexagon. ...

- No. 9. Hexagonal Star
- 1. 1 Describe a circle, radius 3. 2. Set off the radius on the circumference, as in No. 8. 3. Draw the triangles ACE and BDF. 4. Darken the outline of the star. ...

- No. 10. Octagonal Card
- 1. Construct the square. 2. Draw the diagonals. 3. With half the length of the diagonal as radius and the corners of the square as centres describe arcs, locating the corners of the octagon, 4. Co...

- No. 12. Circle-Maker
- 1. Construct rectangle. 2. Draw the centre line. 3. Divide the line into inches. 4. Divide the first inch into quarters and the second inch into half inches. 5. Punch holes with a pin. Note. - ...

- No. 13. Rhombus
- 1. Draw the base AB. 2. Draw an oblique line AC, length = AB, through A at any convenient angle to AB. (60.) 3. Take AB as radius and B and C respectively as centres and find D. 4. Connect D...

- No. 14. Rhomboid
- 1. Draw the base AB. 2. Draw AC at any convenient angle to AB. (60.) 3. With C as centre and AB as radius describe arc. 4. With B as centre and AC as radius describe are, the two intersectin...

- No. 15. Quatrefoil
- 1. Construct square, side '2. 2. Find centre of each side and construct semicircles. No. 18. Trefoil 1. Construct an equilateral triangle, side 2¼. 2. With corners of triangle as centres and...

- No. 17. Hem Measure
- 1. Construct the rectangle. 2. Mark off a distance ¾ from one end on one side, and 3 on the other side, and make the drawing for the notches. Note. - Explain its application in Sewing. ...

- No. 19. Table Mat
- 1. Describe a circle, 2 radius. 2. Draw the horizontal and vertical diameters. 3. Bisect quadrants, using the compasses, and draw the diameters. 4. With extremities of diameters as centres desc...

- No. 20A. Book-Mark
- 1. Draw a horizontal line 1 long. 2. From one end set off radius and describe circle. 3. Draw lines parallel to the horizontal line, ¼ from it, on each side, and complete end of ...

- No. 21. Sled
- 1. Construct the rectangle 4½X 3. 2. Draw folding lines and complete outline of the model. 3. On the dash lines fold the parts A and C at right angles to B, Note. - In all the follow...

- No. 24. Wall Pocket
- 1, Construct square 8½. 2. Find centre of sides, and connect. ...

- Boxes
- No. 23. Square Box Construct square 5 and draw lines inside square. No. 25. Cubical Box 1. Construct rectangle 8X6. 2. Divide sides into two-inch spaces and connect opposite points. No. ...

- No. 29. Basket
- 1. Construct 2 square, and draw diagonals. 2. With radius 4 and centre the intersection point of the diagonals describe circle. 3. Extend diagonals to circumference of circle. 4. Measure off 1 ...

- No. 30. Candle Shadel
- 1. Construct semi-circle, radius 4. 2. With same centre construct another semi-circle, radius 1½. 3. Indicate the overlapping part by a line from the centre to a point on the large arc ¾ from t...

- No. 31. Portfolio
- 1. Construct rectangle 17 X 12. 2. Draw lines inside parallel to sides. 3. Complete outline of laps. ...

- No. 32. Hexagonal Tray
- 1. Describe concentric circles, radii 4X3 respectively. 2. Inscribe hexagon in smaller circle. 3. Draw triangles ACE and BDF. 4. Extend the sides of these triangles to the circumference of the ...

- No. 33. Frame
- 1. Construct rectangle 11X 8¼ and complete according to drawing. 2. To facilitate the cutting, the inside rectangle indicating the opening for the picture should be drawn on both sides of ...

- No. 34. Square Candy Box
- 1. Construct square 3. 2. Extend sides 1 and connect. 3. Construct equilateral triangles on lines just drawn. 4. Cut out the model. 5. Draw dotted lines for laps on other side of cardboard. ...

- No. 38. Court Plaster Case
- 1. Construct the outside rectangle 5½ X 4½. 2. Draw the lines parallel to the sides, forming inside rectangles. 3. Construct laps AD and C. 4. In constructing lap B find the centre of ab, draw ...

- No. 39. Letter Holder
- 1. Construct rectangle 14 x 4½ 2. Draw lines and -| from each end respectively. 3. Find the centre of each of these lines, and describe the semicircles. 4. Locate the centres for ...

- No. 40. Card Basket
- 1. Describe a circle 3 radius. 2. Draw two diameters at right angles. 3. With each end of the diameters as centres set off radius (3) on the circumference. 4. With the twelve points as centres,...

- Second Year Plan Of The Exercises
- Exercises. Models. Cutting, Folding, Pasting. No. 1. Rule. 2. Napkin Ring. 3A. Money Bag. 3B. Money Bag, with Cover. ...

- No. 2. Napkin Ring
- When pasted line AB will coincide with A'B'. ...

- No. 3A. Money Bag
- 1. Construct rectangle 6½ X 3½. 2. Draw lines inside rectangle, making the outline of the figure with heavy lines, and using dotted lines to indicate folding. 3. The laps in this and all the fol...

- No. 4. Match Scratcher
- 1. Construct outside rectangle. 2. Draw lines inside ¼ from the sides. 3. Measure off | from each corner on each side of the outside rectangle. 4. Mark off 1 on the lines drawn inside, measuring...

- No. 5. Lamp Shade
- 1. When pasted B'D' will coincide with BD. ...

- No. 6. Calendar Stand
- Construct an equilateral triangle on AB, and then on AC and on BC. Note. - The size of this model may be modified according to the size of the calendar. ...

- No. 7A. Envelope
- 1. Construct 11 X 7 rectangle and draw the lines inside parallel to sides. 2. Drawings of laps A and C are similar. 3. Construct lap B similar to lap D, then extend on lap B oblique lines 3/8 b...

- No. 8A. Small Frame
- 1. Construct rectangles and measure off for the corners. 2. The back and part of the support are indicated in the drawing by dotted lines, the edges being invisible. 3. The back, which is 5¼ X ...

- No. 9. Square Box
- 1. Construct large square. 2. Draw lines inside parallel to sides. 3. Draw diagonal in each small square thus obtained Note. - On this and following models the broader point of the scissors is as...

- No. 11. Basket
- 1. Construct rectangle 3½ X 2¼. 2. Extend sides of rectangle 7 3. The centres of the sides of the rectangle are also the centres of the arcs forming the outline of the opposite side of the b...

- No. 12. Cube
- This model may be used for a bank by cutting a small opening in one of the sides. The point of the scissors may be used for this cutting. ...

- No. 13A. Handkerchief Box
- 1. For construction see Model 27, First Year. 2. Draw laps. Note. - When pasted the cover will overlap the sides of the box. No. 13B. Card Case ...

- No. 14A. Triangular Box
- 1. Construct equilateral triangle, 5¾ base. 2. Set off ¾ on the sides from each corner and connect corresponding points. 3. From the apexes of the inner triangle draw lines perpendicular to the ...

- No. 14B. Stamp Box
- 1. Construct the isosceles triangle 3 X 3 X 2½. 2. Draw the lines perpendicular to the sides, extending one inch. 3. Connect and draw laps. 4. On the side where the cover is attached -1/16 is...

- No. 15. Portfolio
- 1. Construct rectangle 13½\ X 10¾ and complete according to drawing. 2. The lup forming the cover is folded on a line J above the edge of the pocket; the bottom of pocket is 1/16 wide. ...

- No, 16. Round Box
- 1. Construct rectangle 8½ X 1¼ and draw the laps. 2. When the ends of this piece have been pasted, the bottom is put inside, the laps being pasted on its bottom surface. 3. Make another circul...

- No. 17A. Match Holder
- 1. For the construction of back see drawing. 2. The pocket will require a piece of cardboard 6 X 3½. 3. Draw the oblong 3 X 2|. 4. Find centres of 3 sides and connect. 5. Construct equilate...

- No. 18A. Box With Cover
- For construction see Model 9, Second Year. No. 18B. Sliding Box ...

- No. 19A. Hexagonal Tray
- 1. Describe circles, radii 2¼ and 3¼ respectively. 2. Inscribe the hexagons and draw the lines defining the sides of the box. (See Model 32, First Year.) 3. For size of laps see drawing. No. 19...

- No. 20. Pencil Box
- Note. - Partitions, one lengthways in the middle of the box, with laps attached to the ends and bottom, and another across the one-half of the box, may be made as illustrated in sketch. ...

- No. 21 A. Card Case
- 1. Construct rectangle 7¼ x 6 and draw lines inside parallel to sides. 2. For construction of the covering lap see No. 37, First Year. ...

- No. 21B. Photograph Case
- See previous model. ...

- No. 22. Brush-Broom Holder
- For construction see Model 39, First Year. Note. - In this model paste pocket to back with laps inside. ...

- No. 23A. Bill Holder
- 1. Construct rectangle 10½ X 6½. 2. Draw lines inside rectangle parallel to sides. 3. Describe arcs. ...

- No. 23B. Wall Case
- 1. A piece of cardboard 9½ X 8½ is required for the model. 2. Construct square 5. 3. Find centre of one of the sides and decribe large semicircle. 4. Set off on the circumference two spaces ...

- No. 25. House
- 1. The smaller detail drawings represent the roof and the chimney. This model may be made very interesting by adding decorations suggested by teacher. The blinds may be indicated in pencil on the ho...