The Commutator

In Fig. 27 is shown, at 10, a wooden cylinder, 1 inch long and 1¼ inches in diameter, with a hole (11) bored through axially, so that it will fit tightly on the stem (6) of the disc (5). On this wooden cylinder is driven a brass or copper tube (12), which has holes (13) opposite each other. Screws are used to hold the tube to the wooden cylinder, and after they are properly secured together, the tube (12) is cut by a saw, as at 14, so as to form two independent tubular surfaces

Fig. 28. End View Armature, MountedFig. 28.
End View Armature, Mounted

These tubular sections are called the commutator plates.

Fig. 29. Top View of Armature on BaseFig. 29.
Top View of Armature on Base

In order to mount this armature, two bearings are provided, each comprising a bar of brass (15, Fig. 28), each ¼ inch thick, ½ inch wide and 4½ inches long. Two holes, 3 inches apart, are formed through this bar, to receive round-headed wood screws (16), these screws being 3 inches long, so they will pass through the wooden pieces (I) and enter the base (J). Midway between the ends, each bar (15) has an iron bearing block (17), ¾" × ½" and 1½ inches high, the ¼-inch hole for the journal (7) being midway between its ends.

Commutator Brushes

Fig. 28 shows the base, armature and commutator assembled in position, and to these parts have been added the commutator brushes. The brush holder (18) is a horizontal bar made of hard rubber loosely mounted upon the journal pin (7), which is 2½ inches long. At each end is a right-angled metal arm (19) secured to the bar (18) by screws (20). To these arms the brushes (21) are attached, so that their spring ends engage with the commutator (12). An adjusting screw (22) in the bearing post (17), with the head thereof bearing against the brush-holder (18), serves as a means for revolubly adjusting the brushes with relation to the commutator.

Dynamo Windings

There are several ways to wind the dynamos. These can be shown better by the following diagrams (Figs. 30, 31, 32, 33):

The Field

If the field (A, Fig. 30) is not a permanent magnet, it must be excited by a cell or battery, and the wires (B, B') are connected up with a battery, while the wires (C, C') may be connected up to run a motor. This would, therefore, be what is called a "separately excited" dynamo. In this case the battery excites the field and the armature (D), cutting the lines of force at the pole pieces (E), so that the armature gathers the current for the wires (C, C').

Fig. 30 31. Field Winding, Series woundFigs. 30-31. Field Winding, Series-wound

Series-Wound Field

Fig. 31 shows a "series-wound" dynamo. The wires of the fields (A) are connected up in series with the brushes of the armature (D), and the wires (G, G') are led out and connected up with a lamp, motor or other mechanism. In this case, as well as in Figs. 32 and 33, both the field and the armature are made of soft gray iron. With this winding and means of connecting the wires, the field is constantly excited by the current passing through the wires.

Shunt-Wound Field

Fig. 32 represents what is known as a "shunt-wound" dynamo. Here the field wires (H, H) connect with the opposite brushes of the armature, and the wires (I, I') are also connected with the brushes, these two wires being provided to perform the work required. This is a more useful form of winding for electroplating purposes.

Figs. 32 33. Shunt wound, Compound woundFigs. 32-33. Shunt-wound, Compound-wound

Compound-Wound Field

Fig. 33 is a diagram of a "compound-wound" dynamo. The regular field winding (J) has its opposite ends connected directly with the armature brushes. There is also a winding, of a comparatively few turns, of a thicker wire, one terminal (K) of which is connected with one of the brushes and the other terminal (K') forms one side of the lighting circuit. A wire (L) connects with the other armature brush to form a complete lighting circuit.