A Few hints may be useful for painting such a study as that by Mr. Dangon, given on pages 192-3. Of course we do not counsel the copying of the drawing, but this graceful arrangement may well serve as a suggestion to the amateur in the representation of actual Bowers. The careful shading of the leaves and flowers in the model will suggest the proper direction of the brush-work in the treatment of such a subject in oil colours, from nature.

Let the background be light warm gray, rather blue in quality. A shadow thrown behind the flowers, falling a little below and to the right, will improve the general effect.

The two tulips to the right are yellow, with bright red markings towards the centre. The light-coloured double tulip on the left is pale salmon pink. The green leaves are light, cool and gray in quality of colour. The stamens are purplish black.'

To paint such tulips in oil colours begin with the background, and use for the general tone white, yellow ochre, a very little ivory black, cobalt or permanent blue, madder lake, and light red. In the shadows use less white with more ivory black, and substitute burnt Sienna for light red. The yellow tones may be painted with light cadmium, white, yellow ochre, and a very little ivory black, raw umber and burnt Sienna being added in the shadows, while omitting vermilion and light red. For the salmon-pink tulip use white, yellow ochre, madder lake, and a very little ivory black, adding raw umber and light red in the shadows. Paint the stamens with ivory black, permanent blue, white, madder lake, and burnt Sienna. For the green leaves use permanent blue, white, light cadmium, madder lake, and ivory black, adding burnt Sienna and raw umber in the shadows.

Do not be afraid to scrape out anything you do not like and paint it over again. It is easier to do that than to twist a mistake into shape. You can remove paint several days old with a rag and a little turpentine.

The Wood=carvers' Tools.

(Continued from page 129.)

IT will be observed in these illustrations that the panel in process of being carved is mounted on to a rough board, in order to receive the bench screw, as well as to give more resistance to the carver. In gluing the two boards together only a few spots of glue are necessary; if too much glue is used, the panel is liable to split when they are separated. For this purpose use a large straight chisel, gradually inserting it between the two panels, by means of the mallet, going round each side, until the two come apart. Force must not be used.

The panel being firmly screwed to the bench and the outline traced on, the first thing to do is to

Fig. i

Fig. i

How to Use the Mallet:

Cutting

Down waste away the wood from the ground with a large quick gouge, using the mallet as shown in Fig. 1. The head of the mallet should rest securely on the fingers, and, consequently, a round-headed one fits in more comfortably; the handle should be firmly grasped, so that the carver can make a steady regular stroke. The left hand guides and entirely controls the tool.

When the wood has been cut away as much as possible by this process, the carver proceeds to cut round the outline with a gouge and make a still further clearance (Fig. 2). Finally, a very flat gouge is used, known as an "extra flat," with which the correct outline is obtained, and the sides of the relief made smooth and vertical. On no account at this stage should the sides be undercut. The ground is then made level with a bent back ground tool, which was illustrated in the previous article.

Fig. 3 is the original from which the student is working, and, being only little over three-eights of an inch in relief, can be grounded out in the usual way, and not in planes, as described with the goat's head and festoon. The tendrils, however, at first should be left in the mass, and then sloped to the requisite height before the details are defined. For doing this in the first stages, the use of a small fluter is advisable, and also it is better to use this in grounding out the lower parts of the relief; it allows more play to the curves, for if they are once cut down, the line is a hard-and-fast one and cannot be altered. For this design the leaves would be the better for a rather more conventional treatment.

Figs. 4 and 5 show two different ways of holding the tool for modelling, or, as it is technically called by the wood-carver, "bosting in." In Fig. 4, the left hand guides the tool, whilst the right hand presses it forward; but, though very effectual, it is not such a popular position as Fig. 5, in which the two hands are guiding and pressing forward. Always commence the bosting in with rather a quick gouge; it responds better to the form required, and, the corners of the tool being free of the wood, there is not the same danger of it splitting as there would be if a flatter tool were used, when the whole of it may be embedded in the wood.

Both hands have an equal share of work to do, so the cutter should feel equally at ease with either of them. The tools must be held firmly, whilst the wrists and arms should be kept lissome, and on no account should they be stiffened. The wood-carver's motto must be "Firm but free."

Fig. 2.   Cutting down the Outline.

Fig. 2. - Cutting down the Outline.

Eleanor Rowe.

Measure as little as possible. If you carve two balanced sides of a design and they are not absolutely alike, do not let that worry you; strive for a good general effect. This variation is often sought by the artistic worker so as to avoid the mechanical accuracy of the machine product.

"Finish."

IN a lecture delivered at the Royal Institute of British Architects, Mr. W. Aumonier pointed out the importance of all carving being treated according to the position it is to occupy. He said: "Not only the design, but the actual carving itself should be considered with a view to the position it is to take and the light it will receive. Thus, even if quite close to the eye, where, of course, its position warrants or demands a certain a-mount of finish, it must be remembered that real finish rather means perfection of form than smoothness of surface. So that even there it should still show its cuts and its tool marks fearlessly, and be deepened in parts to make it tell its proper tale in the combined scheme of decoration; while, if it is going a great height or distance from the eye, it should be left as rough as ever you can leave it. The only points that have to be regarded are the outlines, varieties of planes, and depths, and if these be properly considered, everything else will take care of itself, and then the whole work cannot be left too rough. Its very roughness and choppy cuts will give it a softness and quality that no amount of smoothing or high finish can possibly attain to." Mr. George Jack, in his "Wood-carving" (John Hogg), quotes these remarks, and adds: "Beware of putting a wrong interpretation upon the word ' rough'

Fig. 3.   The Model.

Fig. 3. - The Model.

- refer to what he says of the points to be regarded, i.e., the 'varieties of planes and depths.' If they are right the 'roughness' is not likely to be of the offensive kind."

FlG. 4

FlG. 4

" Bost1ng

IN"