Carving in the round, we need hardly say, is not the work for a novice, and only an experienced carver would attempt such a difficult subject as the spirited study by Mr. Walter Crane, which was made, we suppose, for his painting " Europa." It would first be modelled in clay or wax, a framework with wire for the legs, tail, and horns having been set up. The size of the finished model having been determined, a piece of wood, to build up the body on, would be procured. Some stout wire would next be fastened out and bent to suggest the legs and tail. If the figure were to be fairly large, another piece of wood for the head would be needed, or else a shaped piece on which the wire for the horns could be fastened might be used.

Modelling in the Round. Study by Walter Crane.

Modelling in the Round. Study by Walter Crane.

Modelling the bull would be very easy compared with carving it, the chief difficulty being in getting a piece of wood suitable. Pine would hardly be fit for the purpose; lime or holly would do. Oak, on the score of toughness, would work up well, but beech would be most suitable, its closeness of end grain rendering it less liable to break off when the more delicate portions of the model are being worked up. The grain should run upwards, in order to get the greater strength.

The form must first be blocked out roughly, and as one proceeds, the model must be studied continually - in full view, in three-quarter view, in profile right and left; from below and from above. Mr. Crane's illustrations indicate what should be the appearance of the model from various points of view. The mere cutting and blocking out in the wood is chiefly mechanical. One begins by marking out and measuring with compasses (with constant comparisons with the model) the different dimensions, then roughly rounding the mass, cutting away the hollows and building up tor the bony construction, using carving tools and rasps and here and there a steel bow-saw.