This section is from the book "Arts & Crafts Magazine Vol1-2", by Hutchinson & Company.
Flowing Two Ways.
Various Ways of Decorating a Circular Space.
From Lewis F. Day's " Ornament and its Application." (By courtesy of Mr. B. T. Batsford.)
Mr. Cunynhame is not one of those who believe that the technical secrets of the art died with such masters of it as the Penicauds, Limousin, and Petitot. He girds at buyers of counterfeit " old " enamels, who, posing as connoisseurs, tell you that "the old colours cannot be matched," and that "the old secrets have disappeared." He declares that in brightness and clearness the modern enamels are decidedly superior, and that there is not one of the old but can be imitated and surpassed. There are very few men, he adds, who can detect a really good imitation, and this he considers " highly satisfactory, inasmuch as it gives us assurance that we possess all the secrets of the ancients, and enables us to satisfy our love of art at a moderate price." [London: Publishers, Archibald Constable and Co., I, Whitehall Gardens. Price, 6s. net.]
By Richard G. Hatton.
Artistic anatomy is usually a dry study, unless taught A by demonstration. In the lecture room, by means of variations of technical statement, illustrated by blackboard sketches and with the aid of a skeleton and a good plastic figure, a clever teacher will hold the attention of his audience. It is a very different thing to interest the student by written description, and, to have succeeded in accomplishing this, Mr. Hatton is to be congratulated. The volume before us, however, as the title implies, is more than a treatise on artistic anatomy, and it is no doubt by the happy expedient of combining such a dry subject with that of the drawing of the figure that he has succeeded in giving us a work at once entertaining and instructive. While referring in praise to " Anatomy for Artists," by the famous surgeon, the late John Marshall, and " A Rule of Proportion for the Human Figure," the author justly remarks that the art student needs something different at a certain stage of his career: "he wants to be helped with his form and his construction, and to help him effectually the subject must be approached from a draughtsman's standpoint." The standpoint adopted by Mr. Hatton is the obviously reasonable one that we cannot begin to draw the human figure by learning anatomy, but must first be able to draw and pose figures - however crudely - in definite and lively actions; in fact, have a general idea of forms, attitudes, and movements. As to estimating the correctness of proportions of the human figure, he, in common with most artists - who rarely use the tabulated proportions - is inclined to trust the eye "before all the science in the world," and to get thoroughly acquainted with the aspect of the figure he recommends the constant study of the Muybridge photographs of the "Human Figure in Motion."
Fig. I. - A Rule for the Proportion of the Upper Part of the Figure.
From Richard G. Hatton's' Figure Drawing."' (By courtesy of Messrs. Chapman & Hall, Ltd.)
Yet we find our author formulating rules of proportion - of course it is inevitable. He says: "The measure that the draughtsman wants is the middle, as exact as possible, dividing the figure into halves. Next, if possible, he will find a division for each half, preferably at the middle of each, or at the third."
The first diagram we reproduce illustrates a rule for the proportion of the upper part of the figure.
"It will be found," he says, " that the waist and shoulders fall very nearly at the third between the top of the head and the end of the whole trunk. The three divisions thus extend below the middle line of the figure. In woman, the middle space is rather smaller than the other two;
Fig. 2. Principal Lines Indicating Sex.
From Richard G. Hatton's " Figure Drawing." (By courtesy of Messrs. Chapman & Hall, Ltd.) it must be diminished by lowering the line of the shoulders and raising the line of the waist. In man, the line of the waist should be lowered. These alterations we easily remember, because the thorax is smaller in woman and relatively larger in man. The rule applies in the back view as well as in the front view, and also in the seated figure."
In the next diagram it is roughly indicated that for a man the chest is wide and long, the hips narrow and short; for a woman, the chest is narrow and short, the hips long and wide. In a three-quarter view of a male torso it is shown how "the chest diminishes downward to the waist, the outline of the back, seen under the arm, contributing very largely to the effect, and being itself a full convex curve." In the corresponding torso of the female figure (Fig. 3), "the chest is smaller in bulk, the hips larger, the waist longer and more mobile. . . The shoulders are more sloping, and their connection with the arm more evident than in the male. The deltoid, a 1-t hough less m a rke d in shape, is very full, particularly in its lower part, at the outer side of the arm. The muscular and fatty fold between the breast and the arm is important in a good figure. The muscles mass at the side of the abdomen, the external oblique, does not make so definite a fold; and the iliac crest, although it should be represented, must be as delicately