This section is from the book "Arts & Crafts Magazine Vol1-2", by Hutchinson & Company.
IF you have not sufficient confidence in your drawing ability to begin at once with the pen, let your first few sketches be made with the aid of a slight outline in pencil, just to assure the proportion and well placing of your subject. Afterwards erase most of the pencil lines, leaving the merest guide to go by. By this means you avoid roughening the surface of the bristol-board by rubbing out errors and correcting. To transfer a drawing, it is only necessary to scribble, so to speak, all over the back of the paper with a soft black pencil, then lay the drawing on the cardboard, and carefully go over all the outlines with a sharply pointed hard pencil; on lifting the paper a complete tracing will be found beneath.
Now let us suppose your first subject to be a landscape, though the same method is equally applicable to figures. Divide the light and shade into two grand masses; begin with the darkest parts, and lay them in with simple parallel lines, keeping the shadows broad and flat, and leaving the lights entirely clean at first. Then recross these lines with others, parallel as before, letting their direction be in whatever manner will best suggest the forms to be interpreted. This is to a great extent a matter of feeling with the artist, and can only be acquired by practice. For this reason it is well to begin by copying some good pen and ink drawings, and, after studying the manner of recrossing and directing the lines, it will be easier to interpret for oneself the forms in nature. Upon the depth of tone desired in a shadow depends the number of times that the lines must be crossed and recrossed (which process is called hatching), but great care must be taken that the lines of one set are entirely dry before another set is begun, for blotted lines will spoil the work. In a Very black mass of shadow the tone may be put in with a fine-pointed sable brush, and the small, deep accents that occur in a drawing may be put in solidly with the pen. A coarse-pointed pen should be used for bold, strong lines, and a very fine one where delicate modelling is needed, generally in the lightest parts. The half tints should" be modelled with the greatest care, a medium-sized pen being used for the general work. Make the lines light at first, deepening as required, for it is very easy to increase the strength of a line, but very difficult to lighten it. If a mistake is made, and a tone is too dark, it can only be rectified by careful scratching with a sharp knife. The knife is also used sometimes in a large mass of black, where a few brilliant lights are to be picked out. Very strong effects may be produced in this way.
Fig. 14. - A gradation with horizontal lines varied in thickness, suggesting clouds.
Fig. 15. - Cross-hatching with slightly oblique lines.
There are a few things to be specially remembered while working which are necessary to a successful result. In the first place, be careful but not timid; confidence is needed to carry on the lines unbroken; they must not be patched and joined. In modelling, graduate the lines to produce a strong effect. Heavy lines must be used in the dark parts, and very line lines made with the small pen in the light parts. If a blot is made where it is not wanted, the drawing is not necessarily spoiled; the ink may be taken up at once with blotting paper and the spot scratched out with a sharp knife. After this, if the paper is smoothed down and polished with the back of the knife, lines may be drawn over it again with a fine pen. When the drawing is finished, rub out the pencil marks.
Fig. 16. - A gradation with slightly inclined lines, useful for skies.