"The inventor of engraving was Goshi Sonja, an early disciple of Sakya Muni, who dwelt on the mountain Reijiusen, in India. He engraved texts on copper plates, but without reversing the lettering. From these, impressions in reverse were obtained with black grease, which were sent to China. The Chinese copied them on stone, and so began stone-printing. In China, about the period Kwan-shin (100 B.C.) Byodo printed" texts from wood, which was the beginning of woodcuts. Shiro, a follower of Koshi (Confucius), made a poem of about fifty characters cut on one piece of wood, which was hung on the wall of his study. Nishikiye began in the time of Ashikaga Yoshimasa (a great patron of the arts, died a.d. 1490), who ordered a Tosa artist to make a painting of " The Hundred Devils Walking in the Evening." Oguri Sotan was master of Ukivo Matahei, who lived at Otsu, and painted many Tobaye with colour; and this was the beginning of the Ukiyo Nishikiye. In the period of Genwa (a.d. 1616-1623) Hokyushi ordered Chikamatsu Ryusia to engrave on cherry-wood a picture of a pine-branch, and this was the beginning of Surimono. In the period Manji (a.d. 1658-1660), another man from the same district, Takekawa Minosuke, observing how impressions were rubbed off leaves (Shinobuzuni), obtained the idea of making colour prints."

That the Chinese owed their arts of printing and engraving to the Buddhist missionaries from India is an interesting suggestion, to say the least.

"Japanese Colour Prints" is issued in the familiar form of the dark green covered handbooks of the Victoria and Albert Museum, where it is for sale. Price 3s. 3d.

Van Dyck. By Hugh Stokes.

IT was remarked by the late Duke of Devonshire that the compansionship of a number of Van Dycks was an education for a gentleman, and a glance at the portraits reproduced here makes it easy to understand what he meant. Although abundant examples are shown of the artist's ideal work, one is particularly struck by the array of fair women,aristocratic men and beautiful children. Of these Van Dyck was the ideal painter. We may name in particular the exquisite half-length, in the Louvre, of the somewhat effeminate-looking " Duke of Richmond"; the artist's own portrait, as a beardless youth, in the Pinacothek; and the splendid Windsor full-length group of Charles, Henrietta Maria, and two infant children. Of all Van-dyck's child portraits, none is more fascinating than the Windsor painting of "Prince Charles in Armour," although painted after Vandyck's deterioration had begun. We find also a " Three Children of Charles I." It is not the Windsor Castle group, showing a spaniel on either side of the trio, but a painting at Turin: Prince Charles is stroking a dog, and the Duke of York wears a long dress and a baby's cap. How could these cherub-faced children have become the coarse-featured Charles II. and the beetle-browed James ? Mr. Hugh Stokes has supplied an appreciative notice of the art of Van Dyck. (London: Geo. Newnes, Ltd. Price 3s. 6d. net).

"Elementary Design."

By C. F. Dawson.

IN a recent public discussion as to the place that the teaching of design should occupy in secondary education, curiously short-sighted views were expressed on the subject by some speakers. "What is the good of teaching the children to design ? They don't want to become designers," exclaimed one teacher, who perhaps was typical of the class who say: " What is the good of teaching the children drawing ? We don't want to make artists of them," who, in turn, may, logically, be descendants of the sage of the East-end, who remarked: " Wot's the good of teachin' the kids reedin' and ritin'. I ain't goin' to make 'em bloomin' hauthors."

That "designers, like poets, are born, not made," is true enough, as our author frankly admits, " if design is taken to involve a great deal of originality, but it is wonderful what excellent work may be produced, after training and practice, by students who at first appear hopeless." Assuming some previous knowledge of geometrical drawing, we see no reason why, with ordinary application, the student should not speedily acquire a sound foundation of the principles of design, with the guidance of such a thoroughly practical manual as this by Mr. Dawson. Of the author's methods of teaching, the reader may form a fair idea from the examples we have been allowed to reproduce from the book. Of these the sprig patterns are interesting as showing how simple sprays

Lotus Design For Marquetry 698Simple Pattern Problems. From Elementary Design. By C. F. Dawson, (courtesy of chapman & hall, ltd.)

Simple Pattern Problems. From "Elementary Design." By C. F. Dawson, (courtesy of chapman & hall, ltd.) may be so skilfully disguised that their geometrical bases will be hardly recognisable. The four widely dissimilar examples of a drop pattern based on the diamond, with the rhododendron as the motive, are the independent solutions of the same problem by four different students. Another problem reproduced here is to make a repeating surface pattern with some bird or animal forms (with or without conventional flowers and foliage), based on

Sprig Patterns with All over Effect • Their Geometric Bases Disguised

Sprig Patterns with "All-over" Effect • Their Geometric Bases Disguised

From

" Elementary Design "

By C. F. Dawson

Courtesy of given "ogee" lines. The latter are not to be prominent in the finished design, but the students, it will be noticed, in some cases, have not been able to avoid a vertical stripe. Mr. Dawson points out how this mistake may be remedied. To invite errors so as to show how to correct them is a part of his admirable system of instruction. (London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd., II, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. Price 3s. net.)

Chapman & Hall, Ltd.