This section is from the book "Arts & Crafts Magazine Vol1-2", by Hutchinson & Company.
"The first measurement (Fig. 3) is across the head - from ear to ear. It must be taken at the point indicated on Fig. 4. With a straight-edge see the relative position which the tip of the nose bears to the notch of the ear. Now hold the straight-edge before the bust, and mark the point for the tip of the nose by another match (Fig. 5).
"Measure on the model the distance from the notch of ear, from both sides, so that you may see if the measurement is the same from both ears, and set up the measurement on your bust, pushing the match in until its projection will accurately mark the point (Fig. 6).
"The next measurement is from the tip of the nose to the projecting point of the chin. Fix a match on the bust (Fig. 7).
"Measure from the two ears the projection of the chin (Fig 8).
"From the last point of the chin to the beginning of the hair, fix another match on top of the forehead (Fig. 9), and mark the projection of that point from the two ears (Fig. 10).
"The last measurement is taken from the point of the mental eminence to the eyebrows. By describing an arc on the model you will find out if the eyebrows are the same height. Then set off the measurement on the bust to correspond (Fig. 11).
"These measurements must be taken with the greatest care, as they are the frame of our work. We must next determine the main lines of the bony construction, together with the principal projections and depressions. This is very important. With the anatomical structure well set up, the details will fall naturally into place. But unless we succeed in getting the proper proportions and relations we shall never get the character of the head - that is, the likeness of our model.
" Guided by the arc we struck for the eyebrows, we will begin our construction by forming the orbits of the eyes."
The Professor hollowed out, with his fingers, the two deep spaces at the sides of the nose, and, almost throwing on the clay, like a potter, he proceeded with great rapidity to build up around them the walls of the sockets which are presently to receive the eye-balls. First, the form of the brow was indicated; then the cheek-bones at the sides and below the orbits. Returning to the brow, it was roughly formed in relation to its bones. The nose was rudely modelled by two deft strokes of the sculptor's thumbs and forefingers. Further adding to it, he joined it to the brow. Then, by a sudden twist, the whole head, which up to now had presented a full-face view, was turned to nearly a three-quarter view, thus receiving the first touch of the character of the model, who had changed his position accordingly.
The neck and shoulders are now rapidly built up. The former no longer resembles a length of drain-pipe. As it receives layer after layer of clay, and roll after roll of clay is added to the shoulders, the neck assumes natural proportions, and we recognize the wisdom of the principle enunciated at the start: "Begin with the smallest amount of clay possible, and build up."
Now, for the first time, the Professor takes up a modelling tool. He trims the end of the nose. Then he indicates the line of the cheek by the nose and the nostrils. As yet there is no attempt at detail. All is being treated in broad planes.
The lower jaw-bones are next indicated, starting from the ears, the angle they form from below having first been carefully noted. Then the upper jaws, and the two corners of the mouth in their proper relation to the size of the nostrils. For the ears the Professor uses his fingers, employing the modelling tool only to scoop out the hollows.
Next, the mass of projecting hair over the forehead is built up and the mass of the brow is broadened, and then, with a sweep of the modelling tool, the horizontal dividing line below the hair is indicated.
The model changes his position for the second three-quarter view.
We are getting a fairly distinct profile now, and the modelling tool comes more into play. The Professor stoops and views the head from beneath the chin. Now he works from underneath. As he explains, the modelling would be flat if done only from the front. If, before, he threw the clay like a potter, his handling of it now reminds one more of the glazier with his putty. He holds a pat of clay in the palm of the left hand, and with the right, pulling off bit by bit, he places each fragment firmly in position, gradually building up and strengthening, in succession, hair, cheek, brow, beard, moustache.
In less time than it has taken to describe it the end of the first stage is reached. Then the camera is brought into the studio, and the bust is photographed as we see it on pages 6 and 7.
To describe the second stage of the modelling with anything approaching the minuteness with which we have described the first stage obviously would he impossible; for henceforth the work of the sculptor must, virtually, be confined to drawing. Perhaps the one other operation allowing of detailed description is that comprised in the shaping of the eye-ball (done with the fingers), the insertion of it into the socket, and the subsequent filling in, about and around it. This was performed by Professor Lanteri with the amazing facility that comes only from intimate knowledge. It was delightful to note the certain touch with which he rolled a strip of clay between the fingers, as one might a crumb of soft bread, place it, caressingly, to form the upper lid; repeat the operation for the lower lid, and then, with a few magic passes of the modelling tool, simultaneously shape the lid and join it to the eye, making it then and there as integrally a part of it as if it had grown there. As he explained, it is only by this method of independently forming the eye-ball, inserting it in the socket and, finally, modelling it and the lid in relation to the orbit, that one can hope to impart any suggestion of life and movement.
The second stage of the bust was completed and photographed on the afternoon of the same day as the first. The work on the third and final stage was, of course, much less rapid. As our photographs of the complete work next month will show, Professor Lanteri has produced a very beautiful work of art, extremely simple in its planes, yet replete with life, character and grace, not unworthy indeed to stand in a gallery of ancient masterpieces.
(To be concluded.) [A complete exposition of Professor Lanteri's admirable method of instruction will be found in his profusely illustrated work "Modelling," issued in two very handsome volumes by Chapman & Hall, Limited. It leaves nothing to be desired.]
In water colours the following is a good list for general use: - Chinese white, cadmium yellow (medium), cobalt blue, rose madder, vermilion, Venetian red, Vandyck brown, lampblack. But this does not provide a full, rich green so necessary in landscape. All the greens obtainable from cobalt are dull, except, perhaps, at the yellow end of the scale. Prussian or Antwerp blue must, therefore, be added; or, what amounts to the same thing, Hooker's green or green lake. The latter (the dark variety) usually requires mixture with some yellow. Hooker's green No. 2, a mixture of Prussian blue and yellow ochre, is available alone for grass and summer foliage. These greens must be used in strong, full washes; otherwise they must be looked upon as liable to become faded or discoloured. In landscape painting, aureolin may be preferred to cadmium; vermilion may be omitted, though very useful in compounding greys; burnt sienna or brun rouge may be substituted for Venetian red; room should be made for a tube of raw sienna if cadmium is retained instead of aureolin. Veronese or emerald green will be found extremely useful, with cobalt, for blue green skies, and with a little rose madder and white for greyish foliage. . Naples yellow, or, preferably, brilliant yellow (Winsor & Newton's) is useful in warm high lights; but cadmium with white and a little rose madder will take the place of either.