Wood Carving

S. F. - First saw the wood to shape, as shown by the outline-in the side view. Next sketch out the lines on each side, and work roughly to shape. A perfectly symmetrical leaf is shown, and care should be taken that the carving is quite true. This may easily be done if the centre line is left in until the last and measurements are taken from it on each side.

Wood-Worker

(1) It was published in "Hobbies." (2) Fretwoods of all kinds, as well as woods for carving, are a specialty of A. M. Craven. His interesting catalogue would be forwarded for ad. for postage. Address, 213-219, Brick-lane.

"Addis." - The "Lady Godiva" Panel is a subject that may tempt an experienced wood-carver, but one competent to undertake it would be independent of any help we could offer him. We might suggest, however, that unless the ornamentation should be reduced at least by half, the interest in the figure would be sure to suffer. Oak will be a suitable wood, and it need not be more than five-eighths or three-quarters of an inch thick.

"Grinling Gibbons." - (1) The best carvers use no varnish of any sort. (2) Capitally finished furniture, specially made for wood-carvers may be had from Messrs. Vennelle Bros., whose address is Gosport, Hants. Illustrations are given of it in their catalogue, which they send for 3d. (3) The address of" The School of Wood-carving " is Exhibition Road, South Kensington.

S. F. P. - (1) You might begin with a modest example of the Scandinavian, or " Viking " style, as it is sometimes called, when, without actual modelling being required, the effect of it is obtained by reason of the background being jigged out of the design. The fire-screen shown on page 126 would be too much for you to undertake, but in Numbers 1 and 2 of the magazine simpler designs in the same style will be found which are well within the powers of the novice. Such work affords excellent practice,and we intend soon to give further examples of it. (2) You will find the addresses of both firms in our advertising columns. It might be to your advantage to mention this magazine in writing to them.

S. S. J. - The Border Design is suitable for many purposes. For Wood-carving, it would be excellent as a frame, or around a tray or small table. The highest relief - the uppermost heavy - should be about 1/4 in. above the ground with a border of 1/8 in. height. The lines could be incised only and the background punched, which would be most effective on a dark wood. For Metal Work, the design may be used as a repousse border, or pierced, with the tips of the leaves joined up to the border. For Marquetry, the border might be used for an inlaid tray; although rather difficult, it would be very effective. Veneer should, of course, be employed; but this treatment of the design should not be attempted by the beginner, nor indeed by any one who has not had considerable practice in the craft.

China Painting

H. F. (Burslem). - Yes; the poppy design given for a frieze in October, may easily be adapted for china painting, for the decoration of a cylindrical umbrella stand; or it may be used as it is, for a tall pot-pourri jar. Wipe the china over with turpentine, and mark off accurately the lines separating the three sections of the design. For the umbrella stand, let the bottom of the design start from the lower edge of the jar, and repeat the lowest section as a border around the top of the jar, using a plain tint for the space between. The poppies may be painted in their natural colour or on a steel grey ground. Before tracing on the design, the ground tint must be laid. Put out sufficient steel grey to tint the space required. Add about one-third flux and a very little spirits of turpentine, with enough tinting oil to make the colour flow freely from the brush; then, with a large, flat brush, at least one inch broad, apply the colour as evenly as possible over every part of the jar, except the spaces left for the three narrow bands. The ground of these, being nearly covered with small grassy leaves, can be left white. As soon as the tint is laid blend it with a pouncer made by tying up some cotton wool in a piece of soft cambric. When the tint is per-fectly dry, transfer the design on to it by means of coloured transfer paper and a bone tracer. The ground colour must now be removed from within the lines of the design either by scraping the colour off or using a paste prepared for the purpose. Using Lacroix colours, let the leaves, stems and seed-pods be first thinly painted with grass green and afterwards shaded with brown green. For the petal of the flowers take Capucine red, add a little tinting oil, and after laving it on, blend the colour with a fiat-end stippling brush. Put this colour on rather darker than you wish it to be when fired. Use purple No. 2 mixed with a little ivory black for the stamens around the seed-pods and the darker patches near the flower stems. The small grassy leaves on the outer bands need a flat tint of grass green only. Now outline the entire design with deep red brown, and mark in the straight lines with the same colour. One firing should be sufficient.

S. F. - (1) Any mixture of iron with colours which contain no iron tends to sully the purity of the colour and produce a grey. (2) The carmines mix with every colour excepting "mixing yellow." Yellows mix with all the colours except the purples and violet-of-iron. It is best not to mix them with blues. The made greens are numerous, and although all of them are a little crude, they can easily be modified to suit all requirements, browns, carmines, greys or black all being available for the purpose. Blues combine with carmines and purples to produce every tone of lilac and violet. For very deep tones a little black is sometimes added. Red and carnations mix freely with all the yellows, excepting yellow for mixing, and with browns, blacks .and purples. (3) Browns when used on yellow should have a little purple mixed with them. (4) You cannot do better than send your decorated pieces to "Henry S. Ashwin, Stoke-upon-Trent," to be fired. (5) We do not know exactly, but Mr. Ashwin's terms for firing stated in his circulars, seem very moderate.

The Shell and Glass Mosaic Process. S. W. and "Art Student." (1) Not so far as we know. (2) The peacock blue consists of pieces Of a peculiar shell found on certain parts of the Mediterranean shore. In our next issue we shall describe the process in detail.

Repousse Metal Work.

New Reader

(1) Repousse work in metal wrought on a pitch bed is more the occupation of the artist than the hard hammering process, which might more properly be called embossing. (2) All the tools and materials may be ordered from Harger Bros . whose address is "Settle, Yorks."

S. J. - (1) The best way to remove the metal from the bed when the work is done is to put it under the tap, and let the cold water run on it till the pitch is brittle; it will easily crack off if a broad blade is put under it. (2) To matt a background in repousse begin by making a line of matting just without the outlines of the figure, and work gradually towards the edge of the metal. Do not try to finish wholly any one part of the background, but work in a scattered manner all over it. Repeat this again and again, each time making the matting a little closer and finer than before - until all is worked as finely as desired. If worked from the outer edge inward, the pattern is apt to round up too much in places, and is in danger of cracking. If but one portion of the ground is at first entirely finished, the unfinished portion becomes raised and unmanageable, whereas, if a scattered dotting is made all over at the first working, the whole is kept flat, and each subsequent hammering works easier and better. (2) See our answer to "New Reader."

Needlework. Hampstead. - (1) Tea doilies are about 6 in. square. They may be of fine white damask fringed, and witli a border of drawn work. Some of the Walter Crane designs you mention are illustrated in the catalogue of John Wilson's Sons' successors (188, Regent-street, London), which they would send you if you sent a stamp and mentioned this magazine. (2) The "blanket stitch" is a wide-apart buttonhole. As it is ordinarily used on soft materials with worsteds it is well to reverse the needle, so as to avoid splitting the thread with the point.

Reader - (1) There is no such regulation. (2) We presume you mean the patent work-frame stand patented by Mrs. G. E. Moberly. They are "the kind that are used at the Royal School of Art Needlework." We do not know the prices - you had better write for them, her address is Cottesmore, Tuddenham Road, Ipswich.

Pen

For the cot cover choose a pure white linen, firm and soft. Repeat the square design four times in the centre; then make a drawn-thread border, more or less elaborate round the centre square, putting the small border next with a two-inch hemstitched hem to finish. Embroider the wild roses with three-strands of filofloss, using three shades of pink, three of green for the foliage, and two of turquoise blue for the bow knots; also one shade of dull yellow lor the stamens will be needed. A pretty little pillow to go with this cot cover may be made of fine hemstitched cambric with the border inside the hem. This design also is suitable for a cushion cover on white surah worked in the same colouring as suggested for the cot cover.