It is first of all necessary for the novice to train his hand in simple hatching and cross-hatching. When thoroughly proficient he-should be able to shade evenly a given surface almost without looking at the paper. The pen must be used firmly and smoothly, with an even pressure. The examples of shadings illustrated herewith should be followed slowly and carefully; speed comes with proficiency. A knowledge of textures can be obtained at the same time. A ruler should rarely be used; it is better, indeed, to do without it altogether, as it produces a hard and mechanical effect unless used with skill and discretion. Of the textures illustrated, No. 3 can be employed in drawing tapestries, needlework fabrics, and the like; No. 4 shows the effect which can be obtained for old oak panelling. Pen and ink is pre-eminently the technique for ruinous "bits," or antique interiors with old oak panelling, such as is illustrated herewith. Fig. 8 shows a representative treatment for rough ashlar or rubble walls. A comparison of Figs. 2 and 7 indicates the difference in transparency of various textures. A passage of the left-hand top corner of Fig. 6, although darker in tone, is far more luminous than the same corner of Fig. 7. This shading is usually employed for dark corners, or to obtain the shimmering effect of partially reflected light. The above are merely a few of the textures which can be used; others will be indicated later on.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures.

The treatment for a single object differs materially from that for interiors or exteriors; in the former case, the artist, not having to consider the surroundings, is able to concentrate his attention on the matter in hand, making the best picture possible. The chair illustrated - a fine example of Italian 17th century work - shows how to throw out a piece of furniture by an alternate shading of background and object. This treatment, however, would not do for interior work, where the draughtsman has to consider, above all, the questions of depth and lighting. Indiscriminate shading over the whole of a picture will destroy all effect of distance, and make the result flat and uninteresting. In pen and ink drawing our technique is necessarily limited, complete tonality being impossible. To illustrate this, let us suppose that we have to depict a room with a large window and a lire burning in the grate. In the scale of lighting, the window is easily the highest note, the gleams from the firelight being several tones lower. Below these again come the reflections from the window, from the fire, light-coloured articles affected by the light, others in partial or complete shadow, dark pieces in the light and the shadow, possibly barely discernible; until at length we arrive at the principal dark, possibly a solid black. To discriminate properlv between all these, preserving the exact relative value of the various tones, would be impossible in pen and ink work; between the dead black of the ink and the white of the paper, the gamut is not comprehensive enough. It is for this reason that any attempt to copy in line from a photograph, with its subtle modulations of tone, is usually a failure. The photograph is an effect of masses; the drawing must be made in lines, and therein lies all the difference. Detail can be faintly indicated in tone which, attempted in line, would cast the whole of the part into shadow. It does not matter whether you shade a length of moulding - a room cornice, for example - by hatching lines across it or by carefully filling in along its whole length a mass of carving or dentilling, the reduction in tone is still the same. It is, therefore, necessary to be economical with our means of expression; in fact, the greater art consists not so much in what we put in as in what

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures 2.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures.

Exercise in Pen Drawing for Reproduction. By Herbert Cescinsky.

Exercise in Pen Drawing for Reproduction. By Herbert Cescinsky.

(See also pages 276 and 273.) we leave out in our work. The value of the white paper in juxtaposition to a passage of dark shading is often enormous. In the composition of a picture, and before any shading is attempted, the student should have a clear idea as to how the finished drawing will look. He should decide where detail should be put in and where left out. A small portion carefully and accurately drawn gives a better effect than the whole scrambled in. In the former case the eye takes the remainder on trust, as it were; in the latter, the effect is unreal and bad. These interesting bits here and there help a drawing amazingly.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures 3.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures.

In shading, the principal dark should be put in first; it can be strengthened afterwards ii necessary. From it the drawing can be graduated down to the white of the paper. The shading should be made to follow, if possible, some roughly defined pattern. I do not mean that it should assume a recognised decorative form, but that a focal point should exist, towards which the attention is directed by the subordination of the remainder of the shading. Indiscriminate hatching is certain to produce a "spotty" and bad effect. As an illustration of this, take a pencil and shade over the easy chair on the left of the picture here illustrated, and observe the result. A good plan is to take a sheet of rough paper and rub in the genera1 tone scheme with a soft pencil. The student can readily . liter a while, whether the effect aimed at is a happy one or not, and if not it can readily be altered until it is right. This rough note can then be kept before the draughtsman as a guide.

Always aim at covering the largest possible area with one series of lines in hatching; the shading of every surface and article separately will destroy all sense of relation and distance. Objects in the immediate foreground may be so treated, but from the middle distance to the background they should merge more and more into the tone of their surroundings. Lighting must be studied before detail; where the former is high in tone, the latter should be merely indicated, or omitted altogether. Variety both in texture and in tone should be aimed at as much as possible; with few exceptions, broad lines should only occur in the foreground. Dead blacks may be inserted sparingly; their use sometimes tends to give snap to a drawing and make it look interesting.

Let me add a few words as to materials. The pens of Gillott's make, in varying degrees, I find are best for line work. A quill may sometimes be used with advantage, but for process work too soft a pen should be avoided, as every line should be of even texture - that is, not black in places and pale in others - unless the drawing is to be reproduced either by the half-tone or the swelled gelatine process, or else rouletted up by the engraver. Never use a crowquill or mapping pen; the power of expression by such means is always enfeebled. Do not finish the whole of one drawing with a single pen; variety in line as well as in texture should be aimed at, requiring that pens of different degrees of coarseness be used at intervals. Nibs are rather like razors - they tend to get "tired" if used for too long a time without a change, and the lines made then lose their crispness.

There is not much to chose between the various Indian or Chinese inks at present on the market. Personally, I have found Stephens' ebony stain more satisfactory than any of them, and the cost is only one shilling a pint. In using it, however, it is well to let the first series of lines dry before cross-hatching, otherwise it is likely to rag and work up.

For work of an ordinary character, glazed pasteboards are as good or better than most of the so called process-boards; they can be purchased at a stationers. For a drawing of a permanent character, bristol-board should be substituted, as, besides being better to work upon, it does not turn yellow when exposed to the light. When Indian ink is used, however, the hard glaze on these boards is apt to give a transparent effect, and, therefore, a false value to the lines from the process point of view. I have found the paper in the "Bushey" sketch books excellent for pen and ink work, and it is very inexpensive.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures 4.

Pen Drawing for Reproduction: Studies of Textures.

Herbert Cescinsky.

in using lined or grained process papers for drawing for reproduction, the drawing, as a rule, should be made the size it is to be published. At most, only a slight photographic reduction should be attempted; otherwise the result will be blurred and muddy. The "process papers "all reproduce the ground darker than it is in the original.