With the thirteen colours mentioned in the following hints, one may obtain any desired effect in flower painting: - (1) Ivory black; (2) Chinese white; (3)Cobalt: There is hardly a shadow or a reflection, in the corollas of flowers especially, where this may not be used, to say nothing of the many flowers in which it is the chief ingredient of the local tone. (4) Prussian blue: Use this to modify the tone of the cobalt in your blue flowers. In compounding brilliant greens, it is useful combined with gamboge, yellow ochre or cadmium; for sober greens, use the same colours and a little lamp-black. (5) Gamboge: A deep-toned, transparent, slightly greenish yellow, useful chiefly in mixtures. Aureolin is more permanent, and may be substituted for gamboge. (6) Yellow ochre is opaque and somewhat earthy. In flowers of a rather coarse type, such as the sunflower, it is very useful, as it is also for compounding greens and in giving the colour of autumn foliage. (7. 8, 9) Cadmium: the three tones - light, deep, and medium - are also valuable; with Prussian blue the) give strong, rich greens; with cobalt or French ultramarine grey greens of very good quality. For yellow flowers they are indispensable.

Full sized Detail of Rose Jar shown on the opposite page

Full-sized Detail of Rose Jar shown on the opposite page.

(10) Burnt sienna, especially useful for painting autumn leaves and fruits. It makes dark greys with cobalt, dark greens with Prussian blue, rich russet tones with rose madder and ochre or other yellows.

(11) Rose madder is the best and safest base for all reds, violets, pinks and purples. (12) Brown madder-is valuable in shading dark red (lowers. It may be used alone or mixed with cobalt. With burnt sienna it makes a rich russet. (13) Vermilion, as a rule, should not be mixed with other colours; it is useful for all scarlet flowers and for autumn leaves and fruit. It may be modified by glazing with rose madder, or painting it over a preparation of brown madder or other dark transparent tints.

The proper use of the turpentine cup is of the highest importance to the china painter, but few beginners seem to understand it. Get a pint of turpentine, seeing that it is fresh and not thick and oily, and keep it closely corked so as to prevent it getting fatty. Fill a small cup with the turpentine, and stand it in a saucer. When painting frequently do not empty it after using it, but simply fill it up each time. If, however, a month or six weeks be allowed to elapse before the turpentine is to be used again, pour it into another vessel, and let it make fat oil, for other purposes.