All the processes between sewing and finishing are included under the general name of forwarding. The first of these is gluing up. The book is first placed between mill boards having one right angle at the corner formed by head and back, and carefully knocked up. It is then put into the finishing press, back up, and the back daubed with hot glue. Bookbinder's glue is the best.
The next two processes, rounding and backing, have already been described. If the book is a valuable one, great care should be taken to put it in the press just right and to use regular "backing irons" so as to force a joint into which the covers will fit. The book should be put between the backing irons which are set in the press, ends of tapes out, in such a position that the exact thickness of the boards projects above the top of the irons to form a "joint." If necessary, lines may be drawn to mark the exact place for the top of the irons. Even professionals have frequently to put the book in position two or three times to get it exact. Back as described in the beginning of the chapter.
Use Of Sewing Frame. (Sewing on Tapes.)
The book may then be left in press to dry, the process of backing being completed, while the boards are made. In a book sewed on raised bands the best quality of mill board should be used, lined with good white paper. For a book sewed on tapes, the thin mill board may be lined with straw board. The approximate size, considerable allowance being made for cutting, should be decided on, and the four pieces of board cut.
After the long edges are cut a line should be drawn two inches in on each board, and the straw board glued to the mill board outside this two-inch space, which should be filled in with a loose piece of paper. After the boards are prepared in this way they should be nipped up in the press.
The two sets of boards should then be stuck together with a bit of paste, the cut edges exactly coinciding and the mill boards outside. They should be put in press over-night.
The boards should then be cut to fit the book, allowing 1/4 inch the thickness of the board longer than the book, and 1/8 wider. In setting the boards in place, an allowance of perhaps one-sixteenth inch should be left to allow the boards free play. The ends of the tapes and the tip should be cut parallel with the back one and three-quarters inches away. These ends and the tip should then be slipped into the two-inch space left between the boards, the paper being first removed. If they fit correctly they should then be glued in, the book being protected by a paper cover. The boards must be tested for accuracy before the glue sets, and the book nipped up in the press.
Pasting Tapes and Tip into Cover.
In full bound books the entire cover is of leather; in half bindings, leather is only used for the corners and backs. A pattern for a full-bound should first be drawn carefully with T-square and triangles, allowing three-quarter inch extra for turn in. The leather has the pattern drawn on it to coincide, and the three-quarter inch edge is then pared thin, the very edge being as thin as possible. The space over the back is also pared a little, not very much in books sewed on tapes. It will pay to learn how to use a paring-knife by watching some one in a bindery, as it is hard to describe the process in words.
The back of the book should be filled in with paper between the tapes and sand-papered smooth. A little paste may be put on before the leather is put on. The leather should be well soaked with paste, and spread out wrong side up on a stone. The back of the book is laid on the middle of the leather, and the book turned over again for the other side. Then the leather is pulled into position if the margins are not equal. The book is then stood on the fore-edges and the leather pulled down with the palms of the hands, as shown in the photograph, and patted flat all over one side, then over the other. The fore-edge is then worked by pulling the leather over, lapping it inside and rubbing the edge with the bone folder, the other fore-edge the same way, as shown in photograph.
The book is then stood up on one end and the leather pushed away from the top far enough to allow a space to make it lap down neatly across the back - that is, it must be
"tucked in" between the boards and the back. The very middle must be pulled up a little so as to make a head-cap. After each end is done this way, and the edges turned in along the boards at head and tail to the corners, a long piece of silk is tied around the book twice, pulling in the leather. The cap is then formed by tapping the book, tipped slightly backward on a stone, and pressing a small orange-wood stick into each side of the cap to hold it in shape.
Head Cap. Mitering Corners.
Covering A Full-Bound Book.
The little sketch shows the correct form. The silk may be left on while the corners are being mitered. The inside corner is made by stretching the leather diagonally onto the book, the surplus leather is then pushed up and cut away with scissors, leaving a tiny overlap, to be pasted down very carefully, covered with fresh pieces of paper. The joint especially must be perfectly smooth. When one side is done it should be left open and folded back in canton flannel under a board or stone while the other side is done. The book should then be left open standing, with the covers held back by a piece of cardboard cut as in the picture.
One Side Drying.
The paste used in the different processes may be obtained from a bindery or made at home. If the latter it must be rubbed very smooth with a spoon through a fine sieve after the materials are wet.
For leather the following proportions will make a good paste: two cups flour, eight cups hot water, a few drops oil of cloves. Stir constantly, while boiling. For paper, especially in mending, a paste made of starch is preferable. One-half flour and one-half starch is a good proportion. A little formaldehyde may be used to make it keep.
In mending, the essential thing is to have plenty of clean papers with which to rub down the work, so that the fingers need never touch the partly dried patch. Each mended sheet should then be laid under a stone, between clean papers. The thinnest Japanese paper, if strong, may be used. It should be measured with dividers and cut with a sharp knife and glass. Often single sheets are pasted to the last leaves of sections. These should be moistened and removed, and guarded; that is, a strip of paper heavy enough to hold sewing should be cut just the length of the sheet and wide enough to fold over and sew with the section. Engravings and maps may be mounted this way. In the most delicate mending the edges of the paper are sometimes pared, and often a piece like the page is used. The mending-paper should always match the book in color. In making new end papers for old books the paper chosen should be deeper, rather than lighter in color. Novels, school-books and other cheaply cased books often have their covers pulled loose while the leaves are still solid.
In order to repair such a book, pull the cover off altogether; if the end section is loose overcast it to the book with a piece of fine bookbinders' thread, then take two pieces of mill board as near as possible to the thickness of the boards, place one on each side so as to hold the joints perfectly in place, and put in the press over night. If the end papers are very much worn, new ones may be attached before the book is pressed.
When the book is well pressed the cover may be replaced. A method often used in repair-shops is to take a piece of coarse-meshed linen about an inch wider than the back of the book and a little shorter and glue it on, leaving an inch flap at each side. When the back is dry these flaps may be pasted to the covers, and when they in turn are dry, a sheet of the end paper may be cut to fit and pasted over like a filling-in paper.