Woods, Hedges, and Lanes. By far the greatest portion of insects are found in these situations. In woods, the entomologist must beat the branches of the trees into his folding net, and must select for this purpose the open paths, skirts, etc. The trunks of trees, gates, and timber which is cut down, should be carefully examined, and a great many lepidopterous and coleopterous insects are found in these situations, and in no other. In hedges and lanes, many of the most valuable and beautiful insects are found, as also in nettles and other plants which grow under them; these should be well beat, but more especially when the white thorn blossoms in the months of May and June. Hedges where the roads are dusty are very seldom productive.
Heaths and Commons. Many insects are peculiar to these situations from the plants which grow on them, as well as from the dung of cattle, by which many of them are frequented, in the latter of which many thousands of insects may be found in a single day, in the months of April and May. These are principally of the Order Coleoptera.
Sand Pits. These are favorable for the propagation of Capris lunarius, Notoxus monoceros, Lixus sulcirostris and other rare insects. Minute species are found abundantly at the roots of grass.
Meadows, Marshes and Ponds. In meadows, when the ranunculi or buttercups are in blossom, many Muscce and and dipterous insects generally abound. The flag-rushes are the habitations of Cassida, Donacina and others. Drills in marshes should be examined, as many species of insects are found on long grass. The larvae of various lepidoptcra and neuroptera are confined to these situations, more especially if hedges and trees are near the spot. Ponds are rich in microscopic insects. These are obtained by means of the landing net, which, for this purpose, need not be so long as represented in Pig. 26, and should be made of pretty thick cotton cloth, but sufficiently thin to allow the water to escape. The mud, which is brought up from the bottom of ponds and ditches, should be examined, and what small insects are found may be put in a small phial filled with water, which will not only clean them but keep them alive; and in many instances the naturalist will be surprised, upon the examination of these, the most wonderful productions of nature.
Moss, Decayed Trees, Roots of Grass, Etc. Many insects will be found in moss and under it; the roots and wood of decayed trees afford nourishment and a habitation to a number of insects; many of the larvae of Lepidoptera penetrate the trunks of trees in all directions; most of the ceram-byces feed on wood, as well as some species of Carabidce Ela-teridce, etc. In seeking for these it is necessary to use the digger. It is sometimes requisite to dig six or seven inches into the wood before they are found.
Banks of Ponds and Roots of Grass. These are a never-failing source of collecting, which may be followed at all seasons of the year, and in general with great success; those banks are to be preferred which have the morning or noon-day sun.
Banks of Rivers, Sandy Sea Shore, Etc. These situations afford a great variety of Coleoptera, Crustacce, etc. The dead carcases of animals thrown on the shore should be examined, as they are the receptacles and food of Silphiodce, Staphilinidce, etc. May and June are the best seasons for collecting these insects.
Dead Animals and Dried Bones should be constantly examined, for these are the natural habitats of several insects. It is not uncommon for country people to hang dead moles on bushes; under these the entomologist should place his net, and shake the boughs on which they are hung, as many of the coleoptera generally inhabit these.
Fungi and Flowers. These are the constant abode of insects, and many curious species will be found on them.
It is a mistaken idea that insects are only to be found in summer, as they are to be met with, either in a living or pupa state, at all seasons. Dried moss, beneath the bark of trees and under stones are extremely likely places to find insects in winter; and even then the entomologist is more likely to procure some of the rare species than in summer, as these are ranging in search of food and in situations hidden from view.
At this season, if the weather is mild, the pupae of Lepidop-tera will be found at the roots of trees, more especially those of the elm, oak, lime, etc., or beneath the underwood, close to the trees, and these frequently at the depth of some inches under the ground.
In the months of June, July and August the woods are the best places to search for insects. Most of the butterflies are taken in those months, flying about in the day-time only. Moths are either found at break of day or at twilight in the evening. The following method of taking moths is pointed out by Haworth, in speaking of the Oak Moth (Bombyx Quercus). "It is a frequent practice with the London Aure-lians," says he, " when they breed a female of this and some other day-flying species, to take her, whilst yet a virgin, into the vicinity of woods, where, if the weather is favorable, she never fails to attract a numerous train of males, whose only business seems to be an incessant, rapid and undulating flight in search of their unimpregnated females, one of which is no sooner perceived than they become so much enamored of their fair and chaste relation as absolutely to lose all kinds of fear for their own personal safety, which, at other times, is effectually secured by the reiterated evolutions of their strong and rapid wings. So fearless, indeed, have I beheld them on these occasions as to climb up and down the sides of a cage which contained the dear object of their eager pursuit in exactly the same hurrying manner as honeybees, which have lost themselves, climb up and down the glasses of a window."