Mode Of Use - Mixtures - Concordance Of Enamel With Moist And Oil Colors, And Their Usual Technical Names
Whites, belonging to the first group. White is obtained by permanent white, (for high lights), and Chinese white, a color of very limited use in painting, it being preferable to keep the white of the china when possible.
Permanent white, alone or mixed with other colors for heightening, which is called high light, or relief, requires perfect grinding. It should be tried by repeated and well fired tests before using it for important works. It is lifted up with the point of the brush, and laid without spreading. It could not bear two firings; it is put at the second firing, which is always less powerful.
Blues. (First group.) In his character as a chemist, M. La-croix gives us, in his work already quoted, the general reason for excessive care in using blues . "All the blues, with very few exceptions, derive their color from cobalt. ... As the mixture of cobalt and iron produces, proportion ably, tints varying from light grey to black, it is well to take great precautions in painting when blues are used with reds, fleshes, browns and ochres. It follows as a natural consequence, that when you wish to have some beautiful shades of blue, you must avoid using brushes which have already served for one of the iron colors, and have not been properly cleaned."
Blues are laid on in very thin coatings, particularly blue green.
Ordinary oil medium.
The first painting is but little loaded, and is shaded with the same tint in a second coating, added to grey in the last firing for the darkest parts.
Here are some notes on the concordance of enamel colors with oil colors and their usual names.
Sky Blue - sky blue.
Light Blue - light sky blue.
Blue Verditer - two-thirds ultramarine blue; one-third deep blue green. Slight oiling.
Barbeau Blue, or Smalt - Victoria blue.
Marine Blue (in oils) - half Victoria blue, half carmine No. 2.
Cobalt - deep ultramarine.
Prussian Blue - one-third dark blue; one-third Victoria blue; one-third ultramarine; a touch of grey No. 2; a very little touch of purple.
Indigo - dark blue ; a touch of raven black.
Carmines and Purple. (First Group.) Carmines must be used very thin, lest they should turn yellow in the firing. You must put but little oil to avoid shrivelling. Never touch them with a knife; the brush must be sufficient. It is also recommended, when using purple, to fill the brush well and to turn it round and round to dissolve the little gritty lumps generally found at the opening of the tubes. When a pink color has had an addition of purple to it, spirits of lavender with a drop of oil of turpentine should be preferred to turpentine only.
All the carmines are shaded with the same tint. Purples are also used for strong shadows, and blues for reflected lights. If light tints or pinks are made with light yellows, these colors must not be spread one over the other, but side by side, otherwise the carmine tints would be injured. In the first painting, carmines and purples are to be laid on very light; it is only in the second firing that strengthening touches are made.
" When carmines are fired in the muffle at too low a temperature, silver takes the upper hand and the color has a dirty yellow tint; if, on the contrary,'the temperature is too high, the silver shade is completely destroyed, and the carmine becomes lilac or violet, which explains the difficulty in firing carmines. The same thing takes place with purples, but in a considerably less perceptible degree, because of the shade being much darker and cassius being in a larger quantity."- A. Lacroix.
Enamel carmines and purples are equivalent to the oil colors of the same name.
Light Pink - Carmine A and carmine No. 1.
Deeper Pink - Carmine No. 2 with carmine No. 3.
Laky Red - Crimson lake.
Purple Lake - Carmine No. 1 and a touch of purple.
Peony Pink - Half ruby purple; half carmine No. 1.
Chinese Pink - Carmine No. 3; touch of ruby purple.
Lakes (in oils)- Carmines.
Crimson Lake (in oils) - Purples.
Red Purple - Deep purple.
Crimson - Crimson purple.
Lilacs and Violets. (1st group, except the violet of iron, which belongs to the 3d group.) The same precautions are required in using lilacs as for carmines.
Lilac - Half carmine No. 1; half sky-blue; a touch of carmine No. 3.
Mauve - Half carmine A; half ultramarine.
Magenta - Two-thirds carmine No. 3; one-third deep ultramarine ; a touch of ruby purple.
Violet - Light violet of gold.
Deep Violet - Deep violet of gold.
Light Pansy - Light violet of gold, with a touch of deep ultramarine.
Deep Pansy - Deep violet of gold, sustained more or less and with an addition of ultramarine.
Reds. (3d group, except the purples.) Red, a predominant color, is nearly always used alone. Thus, the reddish tips of green leaves are obtained by placing the red next the green, but not by putting it over. With the dark colors, on the contrary, it is red that disappears.
Chinese vermilion in oils has an equivalent tint in coral for porcelain applied thin; backgrounds are made of it, but it would be risking a great deal to use it in painting, on account of its extreme sensibility in firing; besides, it suffers no mixing. Scarlet vermilion is approached by adding a touch of flesh No. 1 to capucine red, and laying on this mixture in a moderate thickness.
Capucine Red - Capucine red.
Poppy Red - Half capucine red; half deep purple. A satisfactory result is obtained only at the third application of this mixture, which loses at each firing.
Madder - Capucine red; a touch of purple and of carmine No. 3.
Gules (in heraldry) - Capucine red and a touch of purple.
Venetian Red (in oils) - Violet of iron (third group).
Yellows. (Second group.) Certain yellows greatly destroy the colors mixed with them, and even make them disappear entirely. This disadvantage is perceived when too much ivory yellow is mixed with red, or when that yellow is placed abundantly over other colors.
"The yellow called silver yellow contains no silver; it is composed of jonquil yellow and orange yellow. Yellows that contain no iron (yellow for mixing and jonquil yellow) are generally preferred for making fresh greens. On the other hand, for mixing with iron colors, yellows that contain already this metal are used." - A. Lacroix.
Light yellows scale very easily; the dark yellows, being less fusible, need to be used moderately thin in the first painting, for the first fire develops them; at the second firing they increase in depth, and if they are too heavily loaded they cannot be made lighter again.
Avoid using yellows next to blues, which would produce a green tint. For the centers of blue flowers, which necessitates some yellow, the place must be well scraped before putting the color.
Permanent yellow, (half white and half yellow for mixing), serves for placing lights in drapery and yellow flowers, as well as high lights in ornaments.
Lemon Yellow - Yellow 47 of Sevres, with a touch of silver yellow.
Golden Yellow - Half silver yellow; half jonquil yellow.
Saffron Yellow - Two-thirds ivory yellow; one-third flesh No. 1; a touch of capucine red.
Salmon - Two-thirds ivory yellow; one-third flesh No. 2; a touch of carmine No. 3.
Straw Color - Yellow for mixing, used very lightly.
Yellow Lake - Yellow for mixing.
Dark Chrome Yellow - Silver yellow; a touch of jonquil yellow.
Light Chrome Yellow - Jonquil yellow.
Indian Yellow - Half jonquil yellow; half ochre.
Naples Yellow - Ivory yellow.
Orange Yellow - Orange yellow.
Maize - Half ivory yellow; half orange yellow.
Greens. (Second group.) For foliage it is well to remember that dark tints placed in advance of light ones destroy the latter in the firing.
All the greens, whether in foliage or in drapery, can be shaded with browns, reds, and carmine tints.
By painting over for the second fire, foliage can be made purple or bluish.
Dark green, being very powerful, should be used with caution.
The blue-greens are used for the distance, but then excessively light; they are tinted with capucine red for the horizon.
Emerald-stone Green - Emerald-stone green.
Water Green - Half apple green; half deep blue-green.
Veronese Green - One-third apple green; one-third chrome green; one-third emerald-stone green.
Malachite - Apple green; a touch of emerald-stone green.
Blue-green - Deep blue-green.
Dark Green - Two-thirds chrome green 3 B; one-third dark green.
Bottle Green or Sap Green - Sap green.
Emerald Green - Two-thirds blue-green; one-third emerald-stone green.
Browns. (Third group.) The artistic browns for china which steady painters prefer, are vigorous browns, fresh when mixed, and resisting well the action of the fire, but which have not the brilliancy of the less coloring browns.
The warm browns in oils exist for china. The deep red brown and mixtures of violet of iron and of laky red correspond to the red browns.
Golden Brown - Golden brown.
Vandyke Brown - It is impossible to obtain it exactly. The nearest approach would be by mixing brown 108 with violet of iron.
Raw Sienna - Sepia.
Orange Mars - Uranium yellow and a touch of purple.
Blacks. (Third group.) The blacks in oils are represented in the palette for pottery by raven, ivory and iridium black, which answers all purposes.
If these blacks fail, others can be composed by mixtures of simple colors, as dark reds and dark blues. It would be better to operate in two firings to avoid crazing.
The use of iron reds is not admitted on soft paste; the blacks are to be made with iridium black, which is ready made, or with purple and dark green. It is rare that black is needed for subjects painted on soft paste. It is sometimes used in decoration for surrounding ornaments with a line, but seldom for backgrounds, excepting on decorative vases of a certain style.
GReys. (Third group.) A grey of some kind is always obtained by mixing complementary colors; reds with greens, or yellows with violets, violet being a combination of carmine and blue.
The greys obtained by mixing greens, ready made or composed, with carmine or purple, as required, are very frequently used by flower painters.
Experience on this subject can only be acquired by continual trials.
Dove Color - Dove color.
Ash Grey - Light grey used lightly, and a touch of sky blue.
Pearl Grey - Pearl grey No. 6.
Russet Grey - Warm grey.
Brown Grey - Grey and sepia.