For the Hills, mix Indigo and Yellow Ochre, so as to make a light green; lay in the light parts with this, adding Ochre when a brighter and warmer light is to be expressed, and Pink Madder when the surface is broken by rock. Any bright projecting rocks may receive a touch of Yellow Ochre and Indian Red, mixed. A few broad touches will bring this sufficiently forward; they may be given with a brown, produced by the mixture of Indigo, Purple Lake and Gamboge, inclining to Orange or Purple.
The Trees, skirting the stream, should be covered at the same time with the first and lightest tint, varied in the same way and brought into the water, leaving a sharp strip of light at the edge for a bank or path. Any very light stems of trees should be left. When this has become quite dry lay in the trees with Gamboge, Burnt Sienna and Indigo, mixed, for the light; Purple Lake, mixed with Indigo and Gamboge, for stems; stronger and browner for dark touches. The rocky masses lying in the water near the promontory may be covered by a tint of Indigo and Brown Madder, mixed; a little Olive Green will vary the tint, if a greenish hue is wanted. Gamboge, mixed with Indigo to a light green, and varied with Purple Lake and Indigo, will serve for the parts of the rising ground seen through the branches of the trees, which may receive a tint of Indigo mixed with Burnt Sienna and Olive Green.
The Foreground may be laid in with Indian Red, mixed with Yellow Ochre, and broken by Sepia or Indigo; shadows across the road may be rendered by washes of Indigo mixed with Brown Madder, and Lampblack mixed with Purple Lake for cool slate colored rocks in shade.
Birch trees should be covered with a tint of Indian Yellow and Burnt Sienna, and shaded with Brown Madder and Indigo mixed, or Sepia and Purple Lake. Bring out the stems by dark touches of Vandyke Brown mixed with Purple Lake, in shade. The dark greens about the foreground should be composed of Sepia and Indian Yellow. The figures in the landscape may have some red in the drapery; the sheep, a little Yellow Ochre. In mixing the colors always incline towards warmth, because a little more coolness and atmosphere may be given by a wash of Cobalt Blue mixed with Pink Madder or Indian Red. Reflections in water should be painted similar in hue to the objects, but lower in tone and more transparent. Large stems of trees may be colored effectively by applying varied greys, browns (made by a mixture of Indian Red, French Blue and Ochre), for light sides, leaving any very bright features shown in the bark. Brown Madder and Brown Pink, and sometimes Vandyke Brown mixed with Indian Lake, will be found of service for markings. When laying on the blue in the sky, be careful to leave the shape of the light parts of the clouds, then with another brush wash in the middle tint and suffer it to blend with the blue on the shady side of the cloud. Add a little Venetian Red, as the tint is carried down to the horizon; mix more Cobalt for distance. Give a first color to the road and cottage; pure Yellow Ochre for the light of the plaster, with white paper left, and with very small portions; the shade, Sepia or Brown Madder, mixed with Indigo; the hedge by the cottage,' brown-pink, olive-green, mixed with Burnt Sienna.
When the Drawing is Dry, begin with the sky, and heighten or subdue as seems best; give the shade to the clouds, taking care that the indications of shadow, and feature generally, grow lighter the nearer they come to the horizon; the country is distinguished from the sky by outline - a dark touch of blue in the shadows, from the clouds. Dark touches on the roof, chimneys and windows of the cottage, will give it relief from the sky, and give distance to the small objects; they may be made with Vandyke Brown, mixed with Purple Lake. Brown-pink, mixed with Purple Lake, gives a very dark transparency to water.
For Moonlight Scenes, wash in the general effect of sky with Burnt Umber, mixed with Cobalt Blue and Pink Madder, and Cobalt Blue for dark clouds and distances; Indigo, mixed with Vandyke Brown and Pink Madder, for the general landscape. The learner, before commencing at once upon a landscape, will do well to practice upon blending colors; commencing with Cobalt Blue and Pink Madder you will produce a purple ; add Gamboge, the purple will be grey, etc. In the combination of the following colors, a great variety of tones adapted to skies and distance may be found: Sepia and Gamboge, Sepia and Indian Yellow, Sepia and Italian Pink, Lampblack and Indian Yellow. Chinese White is of service when tinted paper is used for sketches.
In selecting the paper it should be as natural as possible, either cool or warm in hue, according to the effect intended. The tint may serve as middle tint in light of buildings, stems of trees, banks, etc. Cold pressed imperial paper is the best for landscape. There are several other kinds of paper which are used, such as Whatman's extra thick, of 140 lbs. to the ream; or Creswick paper, if white; or pale cream color, are good; but if much opaque color is used in the picture, any common paper will do, especially if of a warm grey or brownish color; and very good pictures are painted on the ordinary brown paper used for wrapping. The most convenient form of paper for sketching in the outlines of a scene is that made up in blocks or tablets.
Brushes should come to a fine point of their own accord, and not bulge out in the middle. Sables are the best for general use. The brushes necessary are two or three red Sable, or goose quill size, and a black Sable of large swan-quill size for flat washes; or where these are too high price for the beginner, a large swan-quill French camel's hair with good points. Do not allow the color to dry on them, or they are spoiled; but wash as soon as used and allow them to dry with the hair in its natural position.
Other Materials, such as a drawing-board, a sponge, an HH pencil for outlining, India-rubber, a sharp penknife for mixing up opaque colors with Chinese White, a tin water-bottle to hold water when sketching, prepared ox-gall to use in small quantities where the paper is greasy or woolly, a quill pen, will also be found useful.
The Colors used are Indigo, French Blue, Cobalt Blue, Purple Lake, Indian Red, Indian Lake, Pink Madder, Indian Yellow, Gamboge, Yellow Ochre,Vandyke Brown, Brown Madder, Sepia, Burnt Sienna, Venetian Red, Olive Green, Brown Pink, Vermilion. One of the principal points in which water-color painting differs from oil, is the laying on of the flat tints by means of washes.