E. H. McClintock.
West Somerville, Mass.
As a substitute for, or in the absence of red lead, use varnish on air or steam pipe joints. It will dry very hard and last for a long time. Donald A. Hampson.
Middletown, N. Y.
A good cement for use in making steam pipe joints is made in the following manner. Grind and wash in clean cold water 15 parts of chalk and 50 parts of graphite Mix the two together thoroughly and allow to dry. When dry regrind to a fine powder, to which add 20 parts of ground litharge and mix to a stiff paste with 15 parts of boiled linseed oil. The preparation may be set aside for future use, as it will remain plastic for a long time if placed in a cool place. It is applied to the joint packing as any ordinary cement and will be found to last a very long time.
Olney, Ill. T. E. O'Donnell.
To make an impermeable cement for steam, air and gas pipes mix thoroughly powdered graphite, 6 parts; slaked lime, 3 parts; sulphur, 8 parts, and boiled oil, 7 parts. The mixture must be thoroughly incorporated by protracted kneading until it is perfectly smooth and free from lumps. Dayton, Ohio. O. E. Voris.
Joint Take ordinary white lead, and mix enough powdered red lead with it to make a paste the consistency of putty. Spread this mixture on the joint, and when it hardens, the joint will be perfectly watertight. We used this mixture on flanges on a standpipe, after we had tried all kinds of rubber gaskets without success. The mixture hardened and made a tight joint, never leaking afterward. J. D. Page.
Take white lead ground in oil, add to it as much black oxide of manganese as possible and a small portion of litharge. Knead with the hand, dusting the board with red lead. The mass is made into a small roll and screwed or pressed into position, the joint being first slightly oiled with linseed oil. R. E. Verse.
A good cement for joints on steam or water pipes is made as follows: 10 pounds fine yellow ochre; 4 pounds ground litharge; 4 pounds paris white (whiting), and ½ pound of hemp cut up fine. Mix together thoroughly with linseed oil, to about the consistency of putty. R. M.
To make a permanent cement used for stopping leaks in steam pipes where calking or plugging is impossible, mix black oxide of manganese and raw linseed oil, using enough oil with the manganese to bring it to a thick paste; apply to the pipe or joint at leak. It is best to remove pressure from the pipe and keep it sufficiently warm to absorb the oil from the manganese. In twenty-four hours the cement will be as hard as the iron pipe.
Oswego, N. Y. James H. Taylor.
A highly recommended packing and cement, combined, for making tight joints in high pressure water pipes, is made as follows: Mix with boiled linseed oil, to the consistency of putty, these ingredients: ground litharge, 10 pounds; plaster of paris, 4 pounds; yellow ochre, ½ pound; red lead, 2 pounds; cut hemp fiber, ½ ounce. The hemp fiber should be cut in lengths of about ½ inch, and thoroughly mixed into the putty material. Its office is to give consistency to the cement. The cement is applied to the joint similarly to any other cement. It dries thoroughly in from 10 to 12 hours. T. E. O'Donnell. Urbana, Ill.
The following are cements used to make the joints of machinery air and water tight:
1. Mix ground white lead with one-fourth its weight of red lead.
2. Mix equal parts of red lead and white lead, in powdered form, with enough boiled linseed oil to make the whole a soft, puttylike mass.
3. To 50 pounds of borings, preferably cast iron, which have been pounded and sifted, add one pound of sal-ammoniac. Mix with water when ready to use.
4. Boiled linseed oil and red lead mixed to the consistency required. A small quantity of litharge improves the cement for many purposes.
5. Cast-iron borings 4 pounds, dried potter's clay 1 pound, powdered potsherds (broken crockery) 1 pound. Make into a paste with salt and water.
I have used all of these cements and find them satisfactory. No. 3 is used largely for filling cracks in boilers, etc., and No. 5 is excellent for outdoor iron work, water tanks, etc. F. L. Engel.
New Britain, Conn.'