Original design deals with the development of original mechanical ideas. The prime requisite for the development of an idea is to understand thoroughly the idea in the rough. See distinctly the mark aimed at, and never lose sight of it. If a method of reaching it is already outlined, understand that also thoroughly and the principles involved. It is impossible to go ahead blindly and hope to come out right. No good machine was ever built that does not stand for hours of concentrated thought on the part of its designer. Good machines never happen, they always grow.

Just as soon as the object to be accomplished is clearly understood, begin to produce some visible work on the problem. Sketch something. Get some ideas on paper. Ideas on paper suggest other ideas. If the problem, for example, is one of lathe design, sketch a rectangle, and call it the bead stock; another rectangle, and call it the footstock; a couple of scratches for the centers; some steps for the cone pulley; three or four lines for the bed; and as many more for the supports. There is now something on paper to look at; the design is begun.

It is much better to stare at this sketch, than into blank space trying to imagine the finished design. No matter how rough the sketch may be, a short study of it will develop some limiting conditions that before were not apparent. Guess at a few rough dimensions; put them on the sketch; develop another view - a plan or a side elevation - all still in the roughest style, without any regard to finished detail. Information will be growing all the while, and the problem will be opening up. At this stage it is probable that the sketch can easily be seen to be wrong in many respects. Perhaps the arrangement will not do at all.

This is a good sign. It shows that the design is progressing. It is a valuable thing to know that certain plans cannot be followed. Do not rub out part of the sketch already made and try to remedy it. Begin again. Make another sketch. Sketch paper is cheap. By and by it may prove to be very desirable to have that first rough outline available for comparison; or it may be that some of its ideas can be applied on other sketches. The second sketch may "show up" little or no better than the first. Make another, and another, and another, until the subject is thoroughly digested. It is wonderful how helpful it is to have some marks on paper relative to a design, even though they be of the utmost crudene8s. They save imaginative power tremendously; and, even with them, all available powers of imagination will be needed before the design is perfected.

A careful comparison of one's sketches, rejecting here, and approving there, will, little by little, bring about a definite opinion, and the scale drawing can be begun.

As in the case'of the first sketch, so in the case of the first scale drawing, get some lines on paper as quickly as possible. Draw something, even if it is nothing more than a straight horizontal line. Do not stare at blank paper for an hour trying to imagine how the tenth or eleventh line is going to be drawn in relation to the first line. Do not worry about the later lines until it is time for them. Draw the first line at once; and, when the second line is drawn, if the first line proves to be wrong, make it right. As in the rough sketch, that first horizontal line is an immense relief from the great waste of blank paper of a fresh sheet. It is something to look at. It is the beginning of a detailed design. If it happens not to be the absolutely correct foundation to build upon, it at least is something to tear down. The main purpose of these preliminary drawings is to keep the mind active on the problem; and advance toward the final accomplishment of the design is often made quite as rapidly by discovering what to tear down as by consistently building up.

When a detail draftsman who has been used to having all his work laid out for him by an expert designer attempts to take up original work for himself, he encounters the drawing of that first line in a way he never did before. He is apt to worry for some time over the possible or impossible results of drawing that first line. If he continue this, he will be sure to fail. The second line is much easier to draw than the first, and the third than the second; and the next hundred will follow on in comparatively smooth sequence, all because of bold action on the first few lines.

And yet, just as the design appears to be progressing smoothly, and the advanced progress of the drawing seems cause for congratulation, careful consideration may disclose a "snag" not previously known to exist in the problem. Further study pursued along the line of this new discovery may show that the whole layout thus far has been radically wrong, and that a fresh start will have to be made. At such a time the young designer is apt to feel that his labor has all been thrown away, and he becomes discour-aged. There is, however, no cause for discouragement. Machine Design might almost be defined to be the "successful elimination of snags." It takes some ability to discover an obstacle of this sort; to know a "snag" when an opportunity to see it is given. It takes a good designer to eliminate such a difficulty after it has been found. If there were no "snags" it would not require great ability to design machines. Many machines fail because in them there are a lot of undiscovered "snags." Others fail because the "snags," although discovered, were not eliminated by careful design.

Do not be afraid to make a lot of "first" drawings. It is just as important to digest the design thoroughly by means of scale drawings, as it was to digest it originally by means of the rough sketches. An attempt to make the first drawing of an original design absolutely right would, it is safe to say, produce a poor design, one that could be much improved by further trial. Let the drawings multiply, one after another, until the final one is reached, in which the perfection of detail will eliminate all the bad points of the preceding drafts and incorporate good ones of its own based on the study of the others.

And yet it is often true that the first design laid out, even after many others have been developed, may be found to possess features that render a return to it desirable. This is why it is always better to produce a collection of designs than to attempt to rub out and work over the first one. The best designers usually have a great number of sketches showing how to accomplish a single result. Likewise, they also have a series of layouts to scale, showing in detailed form the development of their various ideas. This is because, without a careful consideration of many methods, they themselves feel incompetent to judge of the best design possible for accomplishing a given result.

Sketches and original designs should always be dated and signed. Different designers may be working on the same problem, and priority of design will never be allowed except upon signed and witnessed papers. It is embarrassing to find, after months and perhaps years have passed since an original drawing was made, that one's rights have been preempted merely because there was no date or signature to define them.

In redesigning or modifying an existing machine, never make a change merely for the sake of doing so. Give the good points of the machine a chance, and devote attention in the new design to correcting the bad points. It is in bad taste, if it be not actually childish, to "look wise and suggest a change" in details which happen to have been designed by another party, but which, nevertheless, are by common engineering judgment pronounced good for the special work intended. This element of unfair and selfish criticism has more than a moral bearing. When it is carried into the superintendence of designing work, it extinguishes the personality of the subordinate draftsman; his efficiency as an original thinker is lowered; and narrow designs are produced.

"The best way for a subordinate to dispose of what appears to be a poor suggestion from a superior, is to work it out to the best degree possible." If it turns out to be good the credit of working it out belongs to the man who did it. If it is actually bad, a careful working out will usually develop the fact beyond dispute, and save unprofitable argument. For the success or failure of a machine there is only one argument better than the detail drawings, and that is the machine itself in operation.

Detail drawings, however, are infinitely better prosecutors or defendants than a multitude of wordy counsel.

Summary

The above classification of machinery might be subdivided and extended indefinitely, and on the broad basis on which it is given it doubtless does not cover the entire field. As an illustration, however, not only of types of machinery, but of methods of design and study, it is hoped that it may be of assistance in giving a start to the student of machine design, in whatever class his interests may happen to lie.

It is the general principles of the art which it is important to master. It is not the designing of a locomotive, or a stationary steam engine, or a crane, or an engine lathe, or a rolling mill, which should be sought to be learned, but the designing of anything that may confront us. Specializing is sure to come to the designer in the course of his experience, and when it does he merely fits to the particular specialty the principles he knows for all, and practically develops them along that individual line.

HACK CUTTING PLANER.

HACK CUTTING PLANER.