For the purpose of taking up the question of Management in a systematic and practical manner, we must first assume that we have a shop to manage; and secondly, that it is of the usual type of manufacturing plant built, organized, and managed at the present day. The plan of such a plant is given in Fig. 1.
In planning a plant of this character, provision must primarily be made for the various departments for the following purposes:
1. An Engineering Department, wherein the machines forming the product may be designed and the drawings made for the various classes of mechanics who are to perform the work of turning out the product.
2. A Pattern-Making Department, in which the necessary patterns are made for use in the foundry for producing the castings.
4. An Iron and Brass Foundry, in which may be produced the rough castings of the parts that are to enter into the machines constituting the product.
5. Manufacturing Departments, in which all parts (large and small) of the product are made from the rough stock - such as castings, forgings, bar stock, and the like, to the completed parts ready for assembling.
6. Assembling and Erecting Departments, in which individual parts may be assembled into groups of related parts, and these erected into complete machines.
7. A Power Plant, containing the proper equipment for furnishing the necessary power for driving the machinery in these various departments, and for providing lighting and heating facilities for the plant.
The General Office of the concern is of course understood; but, as it cannot properly be classed with departments of the plant, it is not included in the above enumeration.
In addition to the above list of principal departments, there will be the following - quite as necessary, but secondary in importance:
The Transportation System, including shop and yard tracks and cars, elevators, cranes, hoists, and all similar appliances for handling material.
An Experimental Room, which all progressive concerns find necessary in the development of their product.
The Store-Room, in which are stored the raw material and the purchased stock, either partly or completely manufactured, which are issued to the different departments as needed for their daily routine work.
The Finished Parts Store-Room, in which the smaller parts of the product, as fast as they are completed, are stored and held until wanted for the process of assembling.
In this department, often occupying several floors of a building specially constructed for this purpose, are stored all patterns for the iron and brass foundries, and also those sent to outside foundries for malleable and steel castings.
This is a general utility department making boxes and crates for shipping; doing carpenter work in keeping the grounds and buildings in proper repair, and making necessary changes therein; making and repairing flasks for the foundry; and similar work.
A small room serving little more than as a storeroom for paints and painters' materials, as their work is principally done at various points in the shops, wherever the machines or parts may happen to be.
In a plant building large machinery, the shipping room is simply an office for the shipper, the physical work of shipping being done in the shops, wherever the machine may happen to be at the time.
Referring to the plan given in Fig. 1, it will be seen that the Administration Building is placed in substantially the center of the front line of the plant The first and second floors of such a building are usually devoted to administrative, commercial, and accounting purposes. The upper floor is usually occupied by the Engineering Department and drafting room.
The three Manufacturing Buildings numbered 1, 2, and 3 are devoted to the various operations of making the parts of which the machinery product is composed. These parts are then sent to the Erecting Building (No. 4).
The system of shop transportation consists primarily of shop tracks and cars, and is extended to the yard, being so designed as to connect all buildings of the plant with one another and with the yard.
It also reaches the railroad tracks at numerous points. Overhead traveling cranes cover the manufacturing buildings, and extend into the erecting building far enough to form a connection with the large traveling crane serving it, by which the large parts of machines are carried from place to place as may be required by the erecting men. This crane serves to load the finished machines upon the railroad cars, when they are to be shipped, the railroad track being extended within the building for this purpose, as shown in Fig. 1.
The Tool Room is given as central a location as possible, and would naturally be near the junction of building No. 2 with the erecting building.
The Experimental Room has no particular place, but is frequently so placed as to be away from the active manufacturing operations, with which it is liable to interfere if too closely related.
The General Store-Room for purchased material may be in the erecting building, but is frequently located, for convenience of communication, nearer the general offices - as for instance, in front of building No. 1.
The smaller parts are stored in a Finished Parts Store-Room, usually located in this building. Thence they are issued to the Assembling Department as required.