Sometimes the cope must carry a great depth of sand. In the flasks thus far described, the sand is lifted in the cope by virtue of the adhesion of its grains to each other and to the sides and liars of the cope. This adhesion to the bars of the cope may be increased by giving the whole of the interior a bath of clay water. This should always be done when there is a considerable depth of sand to be lifted. The sand may be still more firmly held by the use of soldiers. These are usually made of short pieces of rough pine about one-half inch square. They are dipped in clay water and arranged in rows along the face of the liars. They merely serve to increase the surface to which the sand may adhere. They are, themselves, held to the liars by the clav water which thus forms a sort of paste. When the depth of sand is too great to be thus lifted gaggers are used. A gagger is a piece of bent iron suspended at one end from the liars of the cope and carrying the sand on a projection formed at the other. Some common forms are shown in Figs. 49, 50 and 51. Fig. 49 is a simple form where the back a is stuck to the bar of the cope with clay water. Fig. 50 is a gagger that may be hung from the side of the cope or one side of a bar. The form shown in Fig. 51 is intended to straddle the bar and give support to the sand upon both sides.

Gaggers 100420

Fig. 49.

Gaggers 100421

Fig. 50.

Gaggers 100422

Fig. 51.