After following through the detail of work as given in the preceding pages, it is worth while to stop for a moment and take a brief survey or review of the subject as illustrated therein.

If the text be carefully studied it will be seen that in every part to be designed the same routine method has been followed, regardless of the final outcome. In some cases it may seem a roundabout procedure to follow a train of thought that finally ends in a design apparently based on purely practical judgment, the theory having had but very little if any influence. The question at once arises - Why not use the empirical rule or formula in the first place? Why not make a good guess at once? Why not save all the time and energy devoted to a careful analysis and theory, if we are finally to throw them away and not base our design on them?

The principle to be noted in this connection is, that it is just as fatal to good design to rely upon bare experience and upon judgment alone, as it is to construct solely according to what pure theory tells us. There are many things in the operation of machinery that are totally inexplicable from the purely practical point of view, and will forever remain so until we analyze them and theorize on them. Many good things in machinery have been the result of what might be called "reversed" machine design. When a new machine is started, it frequently, or we might almost say always, fails to do its work just as it is expected to do it. This is because some little point of design is bad, owing to the inability of drawings, however good they may be, to show all that the machine itself in bodily form and in motion shows.

Now, if our analysis and theory have been good in the designing process, it is almost sure that we can very readily analyze and theorize on the trouble that exists when the machine is finished, can detect the weakness, and can correct it with comparatively small change in the general design. This is "reversed" machine design.

If, on the contrary, we have based our design purely on guesswork, allowing our fancy full and free play to work out the details without further basis, we may consider ourselves lucky if the machine runs at all. This, however, is not the worst of the situation. If the machine does actually operate, even as well as it might reasonably be expected to, but still has the usual difficulty of some little kink or hitch that was not expected, then, as a result of the method upon which the whole thing has been constructed, we have no definite plan of action to proceed upon. We must try first this, then that scheme to obviate the trouble. We may be fortunate enough to "strike it" the first time; we may never strike it. It is doubtful if the machine ever can be made to work at highest efficiency; and if fairly good results be finally obtained we never know the reason why, and have nothing on which to base any future action or design.

This haphazard process is not machine design at all, either in name or in result.

As has previously been stated in these pages, there is no such thing as too much analysis or theory in the designing of machinery. Even if we carefully analyze, theorize with rigorous exactness, and then practically modify our construction to such a point that the original theoretical shape is almost or entirely lost, the apparently roundabout process is not in vain, for we are in perfect control of our design. We know exactly what it has to take in the way of forces, blows and vibrations. We know what its ideal shape should be. We know where we can practically modify its form without weakening it excessively or adding excess of material. In other words we know all about it, and therefore know exactly what we can do with it; and whether it follows in its shape the outline that pure theory gives it or some other outline, it is nevertheless well designed.

"Reversed" machine design, as described above, based on observation and experiment with regard to machines already in operation, is just as impossible without exact analysis and theory as is original design based merely on mechanical ideas in the abstract. The method once learned and made a habit of mind will produce results with equal facility in either case, and results are what the mechanical world is seeking.

Another point worth noting in the progress of the problem as given is the absolute necessity of possessing some knowlege of Mechanics. The more of this subject the designer can have at his finger ends, the more ready and successful will he be in all problems of Machine Design. However, the principles of forces and moments clearly understood, and the application of the same in the all-important subject, "Strength of Beams," constitute a fund of information that will give a splendid start and a good working basis for simple designs. It should always be remembered that a complicated design is little more than a combination of simple designs, and if one has the ability to dissect and analyze what seems at first like a bewildering maze of parts, complication is speedily changed to simplicity.

Common sense goes a long way in good designing. There is nothing mysterious about the process If the beginner will only avoid doing things that are foolish and ridiculous on their very face, if he will exercise the same judgment that he uses in the daily affairs of his life and will mix in something of mechanics and mechanical method, he will be on the direct road to success in the art.

Good drawing is an essential element of good design, and it is especially urged that the sketches and drawings as reproduced in the preceding text be studied with this in mind. By a good drawing is meant not a showy piece of work, finely shaded or artistically lettered, but an exact layout, definite and measurable, correctly dimensioned if in detail, and meaning exactly what it says. Machine design is an exact science, and the designer cannot shirk responsibility by permitting his work to be shiftless and loose. If he cannot delineate clearly and in definite form what he determines in his mind the structure should be, then it is purely good luck if he achieves success, and it may safely be asserted that the success is due to some subsequent care and finished design added to his feeble effort, rather than to any expertness of his own. Such success is of a very doubtful nature, and if not bordering on financial loss it is at least secured only at a low working efficiency.

As examples of good drawings the plates shown are not claimed to be anything extraordinary, but it will be noted that they are clean-cut and definite, and that even the sketches are unmistakable as to that which they are intended to illustrate. The information as to the design is all there; nothing is left to the imagination.