Practical Modification

Pins across the shaft can be used to drive light work only, for the shearing ares cannot be very large. A large pin cats away too much area of the shaft, decreasing the lattor's strength, Pine are useful in preventing end motion, bat in this case are expected to take no shear, and may be of small diameter. The common split pin is especially adapted to this service, and is a standard commercial article.

Taper pins are usually listed according to the Morse standard taper, proportions of which may be found in any handbook. It is desirable to use standard taper pins in machine construction, as the reamers are a commercial article of accepted value, and readily obtainable in the machine-tool market.

With properly fitted keys, the shearing strength is usually the controlling element. For shafts of ordinary size, the standarl proportions as given in tables like that below are safe enough without calculation, up to the limit of torsional strength of the shaft. For special cases of short hubs or heavy loads, a calculation is needed to check the size, and perhaps modify it.

Splines, also known as "feather keys," require thickness greater than regular keys, on account of the sliding at the sides. A table suggesting proportions for splines is given on page 166.

Though the spline may be either in the shaft or hub, it is the more usual thing to find the spline dovetailed (Fig. 67a), "gibbed," or otherwise fastened in the hub; and a long spline way made in the shaft, in which it slides.

The straight key, accurately fitted, is the most desirable fastening device for ac-curate machines, such as machine tools, on account of the fact that there is absolutely no radial force exerted to throw the parts out of true. It, however, requires a tight fit of hub to shaft, as the key cannot be relied upon to take up any looseness.

The taper key (Fig. 68), by its wedging action, will take up some looseness, but in so doing throws the parts out slightly. Or, even if the bored fit be good, if the taper key be not driven home with care, it will spring the hub, and make the parts run untrue. The great advantage, however, that the taper key has of holding the hub from endwise motion, renders it a very useful and practical article. It is usually provided with a head, or "gib," which permits a draw hook to be used to wedge between the face key to facilitate starting the key from its seat.

Practical Modification 10084

Fig. 67a.

Two keys at 90 from each other may be used in eases where one key will not suffice. The fine workmanship involved in spacing these keys so that they will drive equally makes this plan inadvisable except in case of positive and unavoidable necessity.

The "Woodruff" key (Fig. 69) is a useful patented article for certain locations. This key is a half.disc, sunk in the shaft and the hub is slipped over it. A simple rotary cutter is dropped into the shaft to produce the key Beat; and on account of the depth in the shaft, the tendency to rock sidewise is eliminated, and the drive is purely by shear.

Practical Modification 10085

Fig. 68.

Keys may be milled out of solid stock, or drop-forged to within a small fraction of finished size. The drop-forged key is an excellent modern production and requires but a minimum amount of fitting. Any key, no matter how produced, requires some hand fitting and draw filing to bring it properly to its seat and give it full bearing.

Practical Modification 10086

Fig. 69.

It is good mechanical policy to avoid keyed fastenings whenever possible. This does not mean that keys may never be used, but that a key is not an ideal way to produce an absolutely positive drive, partly because it is an expensive device, and partly because' the tendency of any key is to work itself loose, even if carefully fitted.

The following tables are suggested as a guide to proportions of gib keys and feather keys, and will be found useful in the absence of any manufacturer's standard list:

Fig. 70. Proportions For Gib Keys

Diameter of shaft

(d), inches.

1

1

1 5/8

2

2

3

4

5

6

Width

(W), inches.

5/16

3/8

1/16

9/16

11/16

7/8

1 1/16

1 5/16

1 5/8

Thickness

(T), inches.

9/32

5/16

13/32

7/16

17/32

21/32

13/16

1

1

Fig.71. Proportions For Feather Keys

Diameter of Shafl

(d), inches,

l

1

1

2

2i

2

3

3

4

4

Width

(W), inches.

3/16

7/32

5/16

3/8

3/8

9/16

9/16

5/8

Thickness

(T), inches.

5/16

3/8

3/8

7/16

5/8

7/8