Definition, Machine Design is the art of mechanical thought, development, and specification.

It is an art, in that its routine processes can be analyzed and systematically applied. Proficiency in the art positively cannot be attained by any "short cut" method. There is nothing of a spectacular nature in the methods of Machine Design. Large results cannot be accomplished at a single bound, and success is possible only by a patient, step-by-step advance in accordance with well-established principles.

"Mechanical thought" means the thinking of things strictly from their mechanical side; a study of their mechanical theory, structure, production, and use; a consideration of their mechanical fitness as parts of a machine.

"Mechanical development" signifies the taking of an idea in the rough, in the crude form, for example, in which it comes from the inventor, working it out in detail, and refining and fixing it in shape by the designing process. Ideas in this way may become commercially practicable designs.

"Mechanical specification" implies the detailed description of designs, in such exact form that the shop workmen are enabled to construct completely and put in operation the machines repre-sented in the designs.

The object of Machine Design is the creation of machinery for'specific purposes. Every department of a manufacturing plant is a controlling factor in the design and production of the machines built there. A successful design cannot be out of harmony with the organized methods of production. Hence in the high development of the art of Machine Design is involved a knowledge of the operations in all the departments of a manufacturing plant. The student is therefore urged not only to familiarize himself with the direct production of machinery, but to study the relation thereto of the allied commercial departments.

He should get into the spirit of business at the start, get into the shop atmosphere, execute his work just as though the resulting design were to be built and sold in competition. He should visit shops, work in them if possible, and observe details of design and methods of finishing machine parts. In this way he will begin in store up bits of information, practical and commercial, which will have valuable bearing on his engineering study.

The labor involved in the design of a complicated automatic machine is evidenced by the designer's wonderful familiarity with its every detail as he stands before the completed machine in operation and explains its movements to an observer. The intricate mass of levers, shafts, pulleys, gears, cams, clutches, etc., etc., packed into a small space, and confusing even to a mechanical mind, seems like a printed book to the designer of them.

This is so because it is a familiar journey for the designer's mind to run over a path which it has already traversed so many times that he can see every inch of it with his eyes shut. Every detail of that machine has been picked from a score or more of possible ideas. One by one, ideas have been worked out, laid aside, and others taken up. Little by little, the special fitness of certain devices has become established, but only by patient, careful consideration of others, which at first seemed equally good.

Every line, and corner, and surface of each piece, however small that piece may be, has been through the refining process of theoretical, practical, and commercial design. Every piece has been followed in the mind's eye of its designer from the crude material of winch it is made, through the various processes of finishing, to its final location in the completed machine; thus its' bodily existence there is but the realization of an old and familiar picture.

What wonder that the machine seems simple to the designer of it! As be looks back to the multitude of ideas invented, worked out, considered and discarded, the machine in its final form is but a trifle. It merely represents a survival of the fittest.

No successful machine, however simple, was ever designed that did not go through this slow process of evolution. No machine ever just simply happened by accident to do the work for which it is valued. No other principle upon which the suecessful design of machinery depends is so important as this careful, patient consideration of detail. A machine is seldom unsuccessful because some main point of construction is wrong. The principal features of a machine are usually the easiest to determine. It is a failure because some little detail was overlooked, or hastily considered, or allowed to be neglected, because of the irksome labor necessary to work it out properly.

There is no task so tedious, for example, as the devising of the method of lubricating the parts of a complicated machine. Yet there is no point of design so vital to its life and operation as an absolute assurance of an adequate supply of oil for the moving parts at all times and under all circumstances. Suitable means often cannot be found, after the parts are together, hence the machine goes into service on a risky basis, with the result, perhaps, of early failure, due to "running dry." Good designers will not permit a design to leave their hands which does not provide practically automatic oiling, or at least such means of lubrication that the operator can offer no excuse for neglecting to oil his machine. This is but a single illustration or many which might be presented to impress the definite and detail character necessary in work in Machine Design.

Relation

The relation which Machine Design should correctly bear to the problems that it seeks to solve, is twofold; and there are, likewise, two points of view corresponding to this twofold relation, from which a study of the subject should be traced. Neither of these can be discarded and an efficient mastery of the art attained. These points are- I. Theory. II Production.

I. Theory

From this point of view, Machine Design is merely a skeleton or framework process, resulting in a representation of ideas of pure motion, fundamental shape, and ideal proportion. It implies a working knowledge of physical and mathematical laws. It is a strictly scientific solution of the problem at hand, and may be based purely on theory which has been reasoned out by calculation or deduced from experiment. This is the only sure foundation for intelligent design of any sort.