The fundamental lines of thought and action which every designer follows in the solution of any problem in any class of work whatsoever, are four in number. The expert may carry all these in mind at the same time, without definite separation into a a step-by-step process; but the student must master them in their proper sequence, and thoroughly understand their application. In these four are concentrated the entire art of Machine Design. When they have become so familiar as to be instinctively applied on any and all occasions, good design is the result. The only other quality which will facilitate still further the design of good machinery is experience; and that cannot be taught, it must be acquired by actual work.

1. Analysis Of Conditions And Forces

First, take a good square look at the problem to be solved. Study it from all sides, view it in all lights, note the worst conditions which can possibly exist, note the average conditions of service, note any special or irregular service likely to be called for.

With these conditions well in mind, make a careful analysis of all the forces, maximum as well as average, which may be brought into play Make a rough sketch of the piece under consideration, and put in these forces. Be sure that these forces are at least approximately right. Go over the analysis carefully again and again. Remember that time saved at the beginning by hasty and poor analysis will actually be time lost at the end; and if the machine actually fails from this reason, heavy financial loss in material and labor will occur. Any haste toward completion of the structure beyond the roughest outline, without this careful study of forces, is a blind leap in the dark, entirely unscientific, and almost certain to result in ultimate failure.

On the other hand this principle may be carried too far. In trying to make the analysis thorough and the forces accurate, it is quite possible to consume more than a reasonable amount of time. Again, it is not always easy, and frequently impossible, to deter-mine exactly the forces acting on a given piece. But their nature, whether sudden or slowly applied, rapid in action or only occurring at intervals, and their approximate direction and magnitude at least, are always capable of analysis. There are few, if any, cases where close assumptions cannot be made on the above basis and the design proceeded with accordingly. Hence the danger of too great refinement of analysis is simply to be avoided by the designer's plain business sense.

The first tendency of the student is to pass over the study of the forces as.dull and dry, and attempt the design at once. He soon finds himself facing problems of which he sees no possible solution, and he bases his design on pure guess-work. This is the only solution possible from such a point of view, and is really no solution at all. A guess which has some rational backing is often successful; but in that case some analysis is required, and it is not a pure guess, but falls under the very principle we are considering.

There is no short cut to the design of machine parts which avoids this full understanding of the forces that they must sustain. The size of a belt depends upon the maximum pull upon it, and the designing of belts is nothing but providing sufficient cross-section of leather to prevent the belt tearing under the pull. Again, if pulley arms are not to break, or shafts twist off, or bolts be torn apart, or the teeth of gears fail, or keys and pins shear off, we must first, of course, find out what forces exist which are likely to produee stress that may lead to such breakage. We should not guess at the sizes, and then run the machine to see if breakage results, and then guess again. Machines are sometimes built in this way, but it is an unreasonable and uncertain method. We must use every effort to foresee the stress which a piece is liable to receive, before we decide its size. We must know all the forces approximately, if not positively. The analysis must be thorough enough to permit of reasonable assumption, if not positive assertion. It is manifestly impossible to solve any problem until we know exactly what the problem is; and a full analysis is the statement of the problem.