### Analysis And Theory

The rim of a gear has to transmit the load on the teeth to the arms. It is thus in tension on one side of the teeth in action, and in compression on the other. The section of the rim, however, is so dependent on other practical considerations which call for an excess of strength in this respect, that it is not considered worth while to attempt a calculation on this basis.

Gears seldom run fast enough to make necessary a calculation for centrifugal force ; and in general it can he said that the design of the rim is entirely dependent on practical considerations. These will appear later under " Practical Modification".

The arms of a gear are stressed the same as pulley arms, the same theory answering for both, except that a gear rim always being much heavier than a pulley rim, the distribution of load amongst the arms is better in the case of a gear than of a pulley, and it is usually safe to assume that each arm of a gear takes its full proportion of load ; or, for an oval section, equating the external moment to the internal moment as in the case of pulleys, we have :

WD / n2 = 0.0392 Sh3 . (68)

Heavy spur gears have the arms of a cross or T section (Fig.

Fig. 38.

37), the latter being especially applicable to the case of bevel gears where there is considerable Bide thrust. The simplest way of treating such sections is to consider that the whole bending moment is taken by the rectangular section whose greater dimension is in the direction of the load. The rest of the section, being close to Either b or h may be assumed, and the other determined. As a guide to the section, b may be taken at about the thickness of the tooth.

Gear hubs are in no wise different from the hubs of pulleys or other rotating pieces. The depth necessary for providing sufficient strength over the key to avoid splitting is the guiding element, and can usually be best determined by careful judgment.

### Practical Modification

The practical requirements, which no theory will satisfy, are many and varied. Sudden and severe shock, excessive wear due to an atmosphere of grit and corrosive elements, abrupt reversal of the mechanism, the throwing-in of clutches and pawls, the action of brakes - these and many other influences have an important bearing on gear design, but not one that can be calculated. The only method of procedure in such cases is to base the design on analysis and theory as previously given, and then add to the face of gear, thickness of tooth, or pitch an amount which judgment and experience dictate as sufficient.

Excessive noise and vibration are difficult to prevent at high speeds. At 1,000 feet per minute, gears are apt to run with an unpleasant amount of noise. At speeds beyond this, it is often necessary to provide mortise teeth, or teeth of hard wood set into a cast-iron rim (see Fig. 38). Rawhide pinions are useful in this regard. Fine pitches with a long face of tooth run much more smoothly at high speeds than a coarse pitch and narrow-faced tooth of equal strength. Greater care in alignment of shafts, however, is necessary, also stiffer supports.

Should it be impracticable to use a standard tooth of sufficient strength, there are several ways in which we can increase the carrying capacity without increasing the pitch. These are:

1. Use a stronger material, such as steel.

2. Shroud the teeth.

3. Use a hook tooth.

4. Use a stub tooth.

Shrouding a tooth consists in connecting the ends of the teeth with a rim of metal. When this rim is extended to the top of the tooth, the process is called "full-shrouding " (Fig. 39); and when carried only to the pitch line, it is termed "half-shrouding" (Fig. 40). The theoretical effect of shrouding is to make the tooth act like a short beam built in at the sides; and the tooth will practically have to be sheared out in order to fail. This modification of gear design requires the teeth to be cast, as the cutter cannot pass through the shrouding. The strength of the shrouded gear is estimated to be from 25 to 50 per cent above that of the plain-tooth type.

Fig. 39.

Fig. 40.

The hook-tooth gear (Fig. 41) is applicable only to cases where the load on the tooth does not reverse. The working side of the tooth is made of the usual standard curve, while the back is made of a curve of greater obliquity, resulting in a considerable increase of thickness at the root of the tooth. A comparison of strength between this form and the standard may be made by drawing the two teeth for a given pitch, measuring their thickness just at top of the fillet, and finding the relation of the squares of these dimensions. The truth of this relation is readily seen from an inspection of formula 61.

The stub tooth merely involves the shortening of the height of the tooth in order to reduce the lever arm on which the load acts, thus reducing the moment, and thereby permitting a greater load to be carried for the same stress.

The rim of a gear is dependent for its proportions chiefly on questions of practical moulding and machining. It must bear a certain relation to the teeth and arms, so that, when it is cooling in the mould, serious shrinkage stresses will not be set up, forming pockets and cracks. Moreover, when under pressure of the cutter in the producing of the teeth, it must not chatter or spring. This condition is quite well attained in ordinary gears when the thickness of the rim below the base of the tooth is made about the same as the thickness of the tooth.

Fig. 41.

The stiffening ribs and arms must all be joined to the rim by ample fillets, and the cross-section must be as uniform as possible, to prevent unequal cooling and consequent pulling-away of the arms from the rim or hub. Often the calculated size of the arms at both rim and hub has to be modified considerably to meet this requirement.

The arms are usually tapered to suit the designer's eye, a small gear requiring more taper per foot than a large one. Both rim and hub should be tapered ½ inch per foot to permit easy drawing-out from the mould.

The proportions given in the following table have been used with success as a basis of gear design in manufacturing practice. The table will serve as an excellent guide in laying out, and can be closely followed, in most cases with but slight modification. Web gears are introduced for small diameters where the arms begin to look awkward and clumsy.

 Dear Design Data.Measuremeats given in inches. Letters refer to Fig, 43. Diametral pitch .. P 1½ 1¾ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 6 6 1 1/8 Face............. F 6¼ 5½ 4¾ 3¾ 3¼. 2¾ 2½ 2½ 1 7/8 1½ Thickness of arm when extended to pitch line.... G 1/8 1½ 1 1/8 1 7/8 13/16 ¾ 11/16 5/8 1/8 Width of arm when extended to pitch line...... c 4 3½ 3 2½ 2¼ 2 1¾ 1½ 1 5/8 1 1/8 Thickness of rim.. K 2 ¾ 2 3/8 2 1/8 1¾ 1½ 1 3/8 1¼ 1 7/8 ¾ Depth of rib ... E 2 1¾ l½ 1¼ 1 7/8 ¾ 5/8 ½ 5/8 Thickness of web. T 1 1/8 1 7/8 ¾ 5/8 9/16 ½ 7/ 16 3/8 5/16

Number of arms, 6.

Give inside of rims and hub a draft of ¼ inch per foot.