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Modern Shop Practice V1| by Howard Monroe Raymond



A General Reference Work on Machine Shop Practice And Management, Production Manufacturing, Metallurgy, Welding, Tool Making, Tool Design, Die Making And Metal Stamping.

TitleModern Shop Practice V1
AuthorHoward Monroe Raymond
PublisherAmerican Technical Society
Year1916
Copyright1916, American Technical Society
AmazonModern Shop Practice

By Editor-in-Chief Howard Monroe Raymond, B. S., Dean, Armour Institute Of Technology

Assisted by Corps of Shop Experts, Designers And Enginleers.

Illustrated with over Two Thousand Engravings.

Six Volumes

-Foreword
A LITTLE more than a century ago our mechanical development had its beginning when the first prime movers were invented and developed. With the development of machines came the development of mechanic...
-Editors and Authorities Consulted
Editor-In-Chief HOWARD MONROE RAYMOND, B. S. Dean, Armour Institute of Technology. Associate Editors CHARLES L. GRIFFIN, S. B. Mechanical Engineer. Semet-Solvay Co.. American Society of...
-Editors and Authorities Consulted. Continued
Joint Author with D. A. Low or Machine. SIMPSON BOLLAND Practical Molder and Manager of Found-Author of The Iron-Founder, The Iron. JOHN FULLER Author of the Art of Coppersmithing. ROBERT ...
-Introductory Note
THE successful education of the man in the shop is a question of vital importance. The difficulties under which he toils in his struggle for advancement, and his daily labor, render impossible the usu...
-Machine Design. Part I
Definition, Machine Design is the art of mechanical thought, development, and specification. It is an art, in that its routine processes can be analyzed and systematically applied. Proficiency in t...
-Machine Design. Part I. Continued
But it is not enough to view the subject from the standpoint of theory alone. If we stopped here we should have nothing but mechanisms, mere laboratory machines, simply structures of ingenuity and exa...
-Machine Design Calculations, Notes, And Records
Accurate calculations are the basis of correct proportions of machine parts. There is a right way to make calculations and a wrong way, and the student will usually take the wrong way unless he is cau...
-Method Of Design
The fundamental lines of thought and action which every designer follows in the solution of any problem in any class of work whatsoever, are four in number. The expert may carry all these in mind at t...
-Machine Design 2. Theoretical Design
After wo know by careful analysis what stress the machine part has to sustain, the next step is so to design it that it will theoretically resist the applied forces with the least expenditure of mater...
-Machine Design 3. Practical Modification
All theoretical design viewed from the business standpoint is worthless, unless it has been subjected to the test of cheap and efficient production. Each machine detail, though correct in theory, may ...
-Machine Design 4. Delineation And Specification
This means the clear and concise representation of the design by mechanical drawings. This is as much a part of the routine method of Machine Design as the other three points which have been discus...
-Constructive Mechanics
Mechanics is a constructive science, its principles lying at the root of the design and operation of all machinery. It is usually taught, however, as an advanced mathematical subject; and the student ...
-Tension, Compression, And Torsion
The stress induced in tin' sustaining part, whether tensile, compressive, or torsional, is caused by the application of forces, either acting directly without leverage, or with leverage'in the product...
-Friction And Lubrication
The parts of a machine which have no relative motion with regard to each other are not dependent upon lubrication of their surfaces for the proper performance of their functions. In cases where relati...
-Working Stresses And Strains
Some persons object to the use of these terms, as one is frequently used for the other, and misunderstanding results. This is doubtless true; but the student may as well learn the true relation of the...
-Application To Practical Case
In actual practice the only information which the designer has, upon which to base his design, is the object to be accomplished. He must choose or originate suitable devices, develop the arrangement o...
-Application To Practical Case. Continued
Driving Gears The size of drum gear evidently depends upon the method of fastening to the drum, and, other things being equal, should be kept as small as possible. One way would be to key the gear ...
-Tabulation Of Torsional Moments
For future reference, it is desirable at this point to tabulate the torsional moment, or torque, about each of the three shaft axes, assuming reasonable efficiencies for the various parts, as follows:...
-Tabulation Of Torsional Moments. Continued
Pinion Bore Fig. 7. The pinion being a driving fit upon the shaft, reinforces the shaft to such an extent that it is hardly possible for the shaft to break off very far inside the face of the pinio...
-Pulleys
Fig. 11. The analysis of the forces in the belt gives, according to the calculation of Fig. 3, a tension in the tight side of 1,059 pounds, and in the slack side 414 pounds. The difference of these, o...
-Gears
Fig. 12. The analysis of the forces acting on the gears has been given on page 28, 4,000 pounds being taken at the pitch line. Using this same value, and choosing a T-shaped arm as a good form for a h...
-Brackets And Caps
Fig. 13. As the size of the drum shaft was determined by considering the rope wound close up to the brake, thus giving in combination with the load on the gear tooth the maximum reaction at the bearin...
-Drum And Brake
Fig. 15. The analysis of the forces acting on the drum is simple, but its theoretical design is more complicated. It is evident that the drum acts as a beam of hollow circular cross section, and that ...
-Base, Brake-Strap Bracket And Foot Lever
Fig. 16. The base cannot be definitely calculated, and can best be proportioned by judgment. It must not distort, twist, or spring in any way to throw the shafts out of line. The area in contact with ...
-General Drawing
The last step in the process of design of a machine is the making of the assembled or general drawing. This should be built up piece by piece from the detail drawings, thereby serving as a last check ...
-General Comments On Preceding Problem
After following through the detail of work as given in the preceding pages, it is worth while to stop for a moment and take a brief survey or review of the subject as illustrated therein. If the te...
-Classification Of Machinery
It is intended to be made clear in all that has preceded, that the same method of attack and procedure may be applied to the designing of machinery, whatever may be the class or kind. This is a fundam...
-Machine Tools
Examples: - lathe, planer, milling machine, drill press, screw machine, boring mill, grinding machine, etc., etc. The machines of this class are all utilized for the finishing of metal surfaces. Th...
-Motive-Power Machinery
Examples: - Steam engine, gas engine, air compressor, steam pump, hydraulic machinery, etc., etc. The element of heat enters into the design of all machinery in this class. The natural agents, air,...
-Structural Machinery
Examples: - Hoists, cranes,elevators, transfer tables, locomotives, cars, conveyors, cable-ways, etc., etc. In the two preceding classes that have been noted, cast iron in the form of foundry casti...
-Mill And Plant Machinery
Examples: - Rolling mills, mining machinery, crushers, stamps, rock drills, coal cutters, the machinery of blast furnaces and steel mills, tube mills, etc., etc. This machinery constitutes a class ...
-A Few Pointed Suggestions On Original Design
Original design deals with the development of original mechanical ideas. The prime requisite for the development of an idea is to understand thoroughly the idea in the rough. See distinctly the mark a...
-Machine Design. Part II
Introduction In part I is illustrated a definite and systematic method of attacking the design of a machine as a whole. In Port II the same plan is followed with regard to the detail of its compone...
-Belts
Notation The following notation is used through out the chapter on Belli: A= Sectional area of belt (square inches;) = th. b = Width of belt (inches). F=Force of Iriction at pulley rim (lbs,'...
-Belts. Continued
Theory The condition of the tight and loose sides of a belt transmitting power, is similar to that of the weighted strap and fixed pulley shown in Fig. 17. If motion is desired of the strap around ...
-Strength Of Leather Belting
The breaking tensile strength of leather belting varies from 3,000 to 5,000 pounds per square inch. Joints are made by lacing, by metal fasteners, or by cementing. The strength of a laced joint may be...
-Speed Of Belting
The most economical speed is somewhere between 4,000 and 5,000 feet per minute. Above these values the life of the belt is shortened; also flapping, chasing, and centrifugal force cause considerab...
-Problems On Belts
1. Determine the belt tensions in a laced belt transmitting 50 horse-power at a velocity of 3,500 feet per minute. Suppose that the arc of contact is 180; weight of belt = .035 pound per cub. in....
-Pulley Analysis
Notation The following notation is used throughout the chapter on Pulleys: A =Area of rim (sq. in.). a = arm ( ). b = Center of pulley to center of belt (inches; practically equal to R). C...
-Theory - Pulley Rim
Evidently it is practically impossible to make so thin a rim that it will collapse under the pull of a belt. As far as the theory of the rim is concerned, its proportion probably depends more upon the...
-Pulley Arms
The centrifugal force developed by the rim and arms tends to pull the arms from the hub. On the belt side, this is balanced to some extent by the belt wrap, which tends to compress the arm and relieve...
-Pulley Hub
As in the case of the arms, centrifugal force does not play much part in the design of the hub of a pulley. The hub is designed principally to carry the key, and through it transmit the turning moment...
-Practical Modification - Pulley Rim
The theoretical calculation for the thickness of the rim may give a thickness that could not be cast in the foundry, and the section in that case will have to be increased. As light a section as can b...
-Split Pulleys
Analysis And Theory The split pulley is made in halves and provided with bolts through flanges and bosses on the hub for holding the two halves together. When the pulley is in place on the shaft, b...
-Special Forms Of Pulleys
The plain cast-iron pulley has been used in the foregoing discussion as a basis of design. A pulley is, however, such a common commercial article, and finds such universal use, that special forms, whi...
-Problems On Pulleys
1. Calculate the tensile stress due to centrifugal force in the rim of a cast-iron pulley 30 inches in diameter, at 500 revolutions per minute. 2. The driving force of a belt on a 36-inch pulley is...
-Shafts
Notation The following notation is used throughout the chapter on Shafts: A0 = Angular deflection (degrees). B = Simple bending moment (inch-lbs.). B0=Equivalent bending moment (inch-lbs.)...
-Theory - Simple Torsion
In the case of simple torsion the stress induced in the shaft is a shearing one. The external moment acts about the axis of the shaft, or is a polar moment; hence in the expression for the moment of t...
-Tension Or Compression Combined With Torsion
In Fig. 29, V might be the end load on a vertical shaft; and the two forces W might act in conjunction with it as in the case of Fig. 26, at the radius R. This case is not very often met with. It is u...
-Deflection
For a shaft subjected to pure torsion, as in Fig. 26, the angular deflection due to the load may be carried to a certain point before the limit of working fiber stress is exceeded. The equation worked...
-Centrifugal Whirling
If a line shaft deflect but slightly, due to its own weight, or the weight or pressure of other bodies upon it, and then be run at a high speed, the centrifugal force set up increases the deflection, ...
-Horse-Power Of Shafting
Horse-power is a certain specific rate of doing work, viz., 33,000 foot-pounds per minute. Hence, to find the horse-power that a shaft will transmit, we must first find the work done, and then relate ...
-Shafts - Practical Modification
The practical methods of handling the theoretical shaft equations have reference to the 6t of the shaft within the several pieces upon it. The running fit of a shaft in a bearing is usually considered...
-Problems On Shafts
1. Required the twisting moment on a shaft that transmits 30 horse-power at 120 revolutions per minute. 2. Find the diameter of a steel shaft designed to transmit 50 horse-power at 150 revolutions ...
-Spur Gears
C = Width of arm extended to pitch line (inches), c = Distance from neutral axis to outer fiber (inches). D=Pitch diameter of gear (inches). F=Face of gear (inches). f =Clearance of tooth at bottom (i...
-Spur Gears. Continued
It will be noticed that R is nearly parallel to the top of the tooth; and it may easily happen that the friction may become of such a value that it will turn the direction of R until it lies along the...
-Spur Gear Rih, Arms, And Hub
Analysis And Theory The rim of a gear has to transmit the load on the teeth to the arms. It is thus in tension on one side of the teeth in action, and in compression on the other. The section of th...
-Bevel Gears
Notation The following notation is used throughout the chapter on Bevel Gears: A = Apex distance at pitch element of cone (inches). A1= Apex distance at bottom element of tooth (inches). B = Ang...
-Worm And Worm Gear
Notation The following notation is used throughout the chapter on Worm and Worm Gear: D =Pitch diameter of gear (inches). E = Efficiency between worm shaft and gear shaft (per cent). f = Clearan...
-Problems On Spur, Bevel, And Worm Gears
1. Calculate proportions of a standard Brown & Sharps gear tooth of 1 diametral pitch, making a rough sketch and putting the dimensions on it. 2. Suppose the above tooth to be loaded at the top wi...
-Friction Clutches
Notation The following notation is used throughout the chapter on Friction Clutches:. a =Angle between clutch face and axis of shaft (degrees) H = Horse-power (33,000 ft.-lbs. per minute). ...
-Couplings
Notation The following notation Is used throughout the chapter on Couplings: D = Diameter of shaft (Inches). d = Diameter of bolt body (inches), n = Number of bolts. R = Radius of bolt circle (i...
-The Claw Coupling
Fig. 53, is nothing but a heavy flange coupling with interlocking claws or jaws on the faces of the flanges, to take the place of the driving bolts. This coupling can be thrown in or out as desired, a...
-Bolts, Studs, Nuts, And Screws
Notation The following notation la used throughout the charter on Bolts, Studs, Nuts, and Screws: d = Diameter of bolt (Inches). d\ = Diameter at root of thread (inches). H = Height of nut (i...
-Bolts, Studs, Nuts, And Screws. Part 2
Theory A direct tensile stress is induced in a bolt when it carries a load exerted along its axis. This load must be taken by the section of the bolt at the bottom of the thread. If the area at the...
-Bolts, Studs, Nuts, And Screws. Part 3
Practical Modification It will be noted in the formulae for bolt strengths that different values for S are assumed. This is necessary on account of the uncertain initial stresses which are produced...
-Keys And Pins
Notation The following notation is used throughout the chapter on Keys, Pins, and: D = Average diameter of rod (inches). Di = Outside diameter of socket (incles). a = Diameter of shaft (Inches)....
-Keys And Pins. Continued
Practical Modification Pins across the shaft can be used to drive light work only, for the shearing ares cannot be very large. A large pin cats away too much area of the shaft, decreasing the latto...
-Cotters
Analysis Cotters are used to fasten hubs to rods rather than shafts, the distinction between a rod and a shaft being that a rod takes its load in the direction of its length, and does not drive by ...
-Bearings, Brackets, And Stands
A = Area (square inches). a = Distance between bolt centers b = Width of bracket base (laches). c = Distance of neutral axis from outer fiber (Inches). N =Number of revolutions per minute. n = N...
-Bearings, Brackets, And Stands. Continued
Theory As the method of calculation of the diameter of the shaft, as well as its deflection, has been considered under Shafts, we may assume that the theoretical study of bearings starts on a giv...
-Problems On Bearings, Brackets, And Stands
1. The allowable pressure on a bearing is 300 pounds per square inch of projected area. What is the required length of the bearing if the total load is 4,500 pounds and the diameter is 3 inches? 2....
-Pattern Making. Part I
Pattern Making dates back to the time when the first article was made from molten metal for the use of man. The pattern must precede the making of its metal counterpart, and is therefore the first sub...
-Warping And Twisting Of Wood
Observation shows that if one side of a board is kept damp and the other dried, the former will expand so that the plank, although originally straight, becomes curved as in Fig. 1. Or if one side of a...
-Pattern Making Tools
While many of the tools used by the pattern maker are identical with those used by the carpenter and cabinet maker, yet the conditions that govern the construction of patterns for the molding of metal...
-Hand Saws. Rip Saw And Crosscut Saw
Hand saws are of two kinds - rip and crosscut. The former, as the name indicates, is for cutting with the grain, or lengthwise of the board to be sawed. In Fig. 10 is illustrated a rip saw having 5 p...
-Compass Saws
As the work of the compass saw, illustrated in Fig. 20, will be both with and across the grain of the wood, the best form of tooth will be that shown in Fig. 21, having more pitch, and slightly less b...
-Planes. The Iron Plane
The modern iron plane, illustrated in Fig. 22, can now bo bought in a great variety of sizes and styles. These planes, with their true and unchanging faces, and their simple appliances for setting and...
-The Rabbet Plane
Among the special planes used by the pattern maker, the rabbet plane, illustrated in Fig. 30, is the most important. The face of this plane is always flat and at right angler to the sides. It is used ...
-Round And Hollow Plane
These planes are illustrated in Figs. 33 and 34. They are made of different curvatures, and a set of assorted sizes, especially the rounds, are almost indispensable to the pattern maker for finishing ...
-The Core-Box Plane
The core-box plane, shown in Fig. 35, while not indispensable, will be found to be a very rapid working and useful tool for making semicircular core boxes up to 2 inches in diameter. By using the ext...
-The Router Plane. The Spoke-Shave
This tool will be found very convenient for smoothing out sunk panels, for letting in rapping and lifting plates, and for all depressions below the general surface of the pattern. It will plane the bo...
-Chisels And Gouges
The chisel enters so largely into the work of the pattern maker in paring and shaping patterns that the quality of the tool should be of the best. While carpenters' chisels are made in several styles,...
-Squares
The best try-squares are now made with graduated blades, Fig. 50, and from two inches to twelve inches in length of blade. Several sizes will be found necessary, as in many cases the blade must be sho...
-Bevel
The bevel illustrated in Fig. 54, with the clamping screw in the end of the handle, is the most accurate and the most easily adjusted style of this indispensable tool. The blades are made from 6 to 12...
-Marking Gages
The marking gage is used for drawing a line at a given distance from, and parallel to, the already trued and jointed surface or edge of a board or piece of wood that is being marked to dimensions. The...
-Dividers And Trammels
The ordinary wood-worker's dividers can be bought in many forms, the most common being the screw-adjusting wing dividers, shown in Fig. 57. This form is reliable, and is easily adjusted to the require...
-Calipers
Calipers, like dividers, are made in many different forms, with and without screw adjustment. Fig. 63 illustrates the screwadjusting wing calipers for outside measurements; and Fig. 64 the firm-joint ...
-Miscellaneous Tools
A few tools remain which, while necessary, are so common as hardly to require either illustration or description. Among these are the hammer, the best form of which for the pattern maker is shown in F...
-Rules
For all ordinary measurements, a 2-foot, folding standard rule. Fig. 81, will be sufficient, but this rule must not be used for laying out or for working patterns, or any part of a pattern or core bos...
-Oil Stones
As before stated, new planes, chisels, and other edged tools, if of the best quality, are always sold ground and sharpened, ready for use. When used, however, they soon become dulled, and must then be...
-Grindstones
Second in importance to a good oil stone is the grindstone, power-driven if possible. It should not be too close-grained. A rapid-cutting stone, even if moderately coarse, is greatly to be preferred, ...
-Lathes
Of all power-driven machines, the most indispensable to the pattern maker is the wood turning lathe. In a small shop where small patterns only are made, a 14-inch or a 16-inch speed lathe, such as is ...
-Lathe Tools
Of lathe hand tools the first to be considered, as also the first to be used, is the gouge. It is used for reducing the stock to be turned, from a rough or rectangular shape to a cylindrical form, 'pr...
-Sawing Machines
As a time-saving and labor-saving machine a good circular saw bench is necessary in every well-equipped pattern shop. The saw bench of which two views are shown in Fig. 96, is unsurpassed in capaci...
-Band And Scroll Saws
A good band saw, such as the one illustrated in Fig. 99, is indispensable for cutting the curves and irregular shapes that form a part of so many patterns. The best machines of this description have a...
-Planing Machines
Because of the fact that pattern lumber can be bought already dressed to any required thickness, a planing machine is not found in every pattern shop. The ordinary surface planer, however, will not ta...
-Methods Of Moulding
As has already been said, it is necessary that the patternmaker should have some knowledge of moulding in order that he may construct his patterns so that they can easily be removed from the Band. A b...
-Methods Of Moulding. Continued
All cut surfaces of the Band are smoothed, parting Band is sprinkled over the parting thus made, and the cope is placed in position and rammed up. When the cope is lifted off, the sand will part half ...
-Patterns From Drawings
As already explained, the pattern maker must understand working drawings in order to construct patterns from them directly. These drawings are usually made to a scale much less than the actual size of...
-Pattern Making. Part II. Simple Patterns
The simplest patterns are those which are made in one piece, and which require no coring, although the castings themselves may be hollow. The first thing which the pattern maker should decide in co...
-Finishing Patterns
Having completed the pattern and its core box, the surface of the wood must be covered with some materia] which will render it hard, smooth, and impervious to the moisture in the sand, and at the same...
-Finishing Patterns. Continued
If a hard, durable surface is required on the pattern, twelve, or better, twenty-four hours must be given between each coat. The roughness will then sand-paper off as a dry powder without gumming the ...
-Gluing
As the use of glue enters largely into the construction of all patterns, some instruction as to its selection and the manner of using will be necessary. When building up patterns, the connections shou...
-Hand Screws
The hand screws, illustrated in Fig. 81, enter so largely into all gluing for pattern work, that some description of their construction and the manner of using is necessary here. The four parts of eac...
-Built Up Patterns
A good example of the manner in which patterns are built and glued up is shown in the construction of the pattern for the 6-inch sheave? pulley shown in Fig. 158. Fig. 158. The groov...
-Built Up Patterns. Part 2
The pattern for a sheave pulley has been explained because it embraces so many profitable points and conditions, not only in gluing and building up, but especially in chucking and turning, all of whic...
-Built Up Patterns. Part 3
From the same center describe a circle 3 inches in diameter, forming the web of the arms; and from this 3 -inch circle, taper the arms to inch in thickness at the ends, care being take...
-Built Up Patterns. Part 4
The next step is to draw, from the center formed by the intersection of the six pieces, a circle 5 inches in diameter, representing the web of the arms, and, near the extremities of the pieces, the ar...
-Built Up Patterns. Part 5
The pulley being intended for a 1-inch shaft, the core prints x and y, Fig. 173, should be 1 inches in diameter, which will give 1/8 inch of metal for boring out to fit the shaft. The two core print...
-Hubs
An ordinary rule is to make the outside diameter of the hub twice the diameter of the shaft. The two half hubs (one on each side of the arms) are usually loose and are held central by a single dowel p...
-Rapping Plates
In the description of the making of the pulley pattern, the ring serving as a binder for the hub is spoken of as a rapping plate. When a pattern is imbedded in the sand, the latter is closely compress...
-Metal Patterns
Metal patterns are extensively used where either one of two conditions prevail: first, where the character of the work is so light interchangeably, and delicate that a wooden pattern could not hold to...
-Fillets
The fillets spoken of in connection with Fig. 179, are used in all except the most simple patterns. They consist of a small quarter curve varying in size from 1/8 inch radius upward, depending on the ...
-Face Plate
Sometimes it is advisable to use cores even if it is possible to construct the pattern so that it would core its own holes. This is the case where it is desired that the faces of the casting and the h...
-Pipe Connections
Many patterns which at first may seem to be quite formidante. will, after a little study, resolve themselves into a few very simple parts, nearly all the work for which may be done in the lathe. Of th...
-Engine Cylinder
The slide-valve engine is built in a great variety of forms. Fig. 209 represents a sectional view of the cylinder of a very cornmon type. At e Fig. 210, we have a cross-section through the steam chest...
-Globe Valve
The globe valve, shown in section in Fig. 218, is a good illustration of a pattern in which, while the outside may be very simple, the inside is intricate and requires considerable practice and skill ...
-Gear Wheel Patterns
In this special class of pattern work, the greatest accuracy and care must be taken, not only in building up the rim of the wheel, but in fitting and placing on the rim the blocks, out of which the te...
-Gear Wheel Patterns. Part 2
Euch block must be so fitted as to reach only from line to line, Fig. 210, care being taken to have each block parallel to, and coincide with its own line, reaching exactly to the line. When all the b...
-Gear Wheel Patterns. Part 3
Small gears, or pinions as they are called, are usually made with a solid web instead of arms, and are glued up in solid blocks of end wood, the grain of the entire block running parallel with the fac...
-Column Pattern
Cast-iron columns are often ornamented or fluted as shown in the half section of a fluted column in Fig. 251. In all such cases the body of the pattern is made octagonal as shown by the line A B CD E....
-Foundry Work
The art of making iron castings has been brought to its present state of excellence after many years of labor and experiment. Iron in its natural state exists as ores and to be of use to man it must f...
-Melting Iron
We now come to the preparation of the cupola and the melting of the iron. The first thing to be done is to enter the cupola and daub the places of the lining that have been burned away. Fire clay mixe...
-Moulder's Tools
The moulder's tools are of the simplest character. They should, however, be well made and receive proper care. Some are provided by the employer and some by the moulder. Those usually supplied by the ...
-Moulding Sand
The qualities of ordinary moulding sand have already been given as infusibility and adhesiveness. Such sand, when used in its natural condition is called green sand. Green sand moulding is most extens...
-Moulding Work
The work of the moulder differs from that of the carpenter, blacksmith or machinist. The blacksmith can see with each blow of his hammer how his work is progressing; the machinist has his work constan...
-Moulding Work. Part 2
Blacking is a mixture of anthracite coal, charcoal and black lead, all especially prepared for the purpose. A good mixture may be taken as 2 parts of Lehigh blacking, 1 part charcoal blacking, and 1 p...
-Moulding Work. Part 3
Average side pressure at b = 2.48 lbs. per sq. in. Total side pressure at b (one side) = 138.69 lbs. Total side pressure at b (four sides) = 554.77 lbs. Downward pressure at c = 3.39 lbs. per sq. in. ...
-Moulding Work. Part 4
In general it is always well to make the gates as long as possible. Where a large amount of iron is to be run through a gate, it is well to protect the mould by placing cores against the pattern at th...
-Grades Of Iron
The grade of iron for a particular class depends upon the intended use of the casting. The natural grades of pig iron are varied by mixing with each other and by the addition of scrap. The pig irons a...
-Cooling Of Castings
As stated in Pattern Making, it is very desirable that a casting should be made as nearly of a uniform thickness as possible. Where the thickness of the metal varies, the thin portions cool more qui...
-Cleaning Castings
After the castings have been poured the sand is usually shaken off from the heavier parts so as to produce an even cooling as already stated. The pouring is usually done at the close of a day's work. ...
-Moulding A Gland With Core
It was stated in Pattern Making that a gland could 1t moulded so as bo make its own core. This is illustrated by Fig. 23 as described in connection with Fig. 28. It may also be moulded with a vertica...
-Gaggers
Sometimes the cope must carry a great depth of sand. In the flasks thus far described, the sand is lifted in the cope by virtue of the adhesion of its grains to each other and to the sides and liars o...
-Follow Boards
In Fig. 58 of Pattern Making a wheel pattern was shown that could not be drawn from the sand. In Fig. 44 the round pattern is made in two parts. Where the pattern is small this is frequently undesir...
-Three-Part Flasks
The greater portion of all moulding can be done with flasks consisting of a cope and drag as described. These are called two-part flasks. Sometimes, however, a casting is required of such shape that t...
-Open Sand Moulding
While it is the general practice to use flasks and patterns for the purpose of making moulds, it is sometimes possible to do the work without either or with only one. Where flasks are not used the mou...
-Dry Sand Moulding
Dry Sand Moulding is frequently done in connection with green sand. It is employed where a easting is of a complicated design. The method pursued is to make a partial pattern with it core print; then ...
-Shrink Heads Or Risers
In making large castings shrink heads are put on the cope. These are in the form of gates and large pouring basins. When the mould is filled, the iron rises in these basins and forms a reserve, From t...
-Core For Cylinder Jacket
The making and holding of the core that forms the .steam jacket of a cylinder is an operation requiring great care. It can be made of loam or dry sand. It must be made about a cage, formed of rods and...
-Moulding Square Columns
Square columns used in structural work are now common products of most foundries. They are invariably hollow. The exterior is usually plain though sometimes ornamented with simple devices, such as pan...
-Moulding Round Columns
Round columns are usually moulded from a split pattern which is constructed as described in connection with Fig. 66 of of Pattern Making. The pattern is made of the maximum length of column to be ca...
-Gear Moulding With Partial Patterns
Owing to the great expense attendant upon the making of large gear patterns, such work is usually done with sectional or partial patterns. These usually consist of a section of the rim to which a limi...
-Moulding Pulleys
As already stated in Pattern Making on page 42, pulley patterns in a complete state are rarely used. Instead a ring, a pattern for the spokes, and loose hubs arc used for making all widths of face f...
-Moulding Wheels
The moulding of fly-wheels may be done either with or without patterns. In case a pattern is used the work is done as already indicated for ordinary work. Where no pattern is used the sweep again come...
-Chilled Castings
Chilled Castings is a name applied to a class of casting wherein the metal has been suddenly cooled or chilled immediately upon pouring. The means usually adopted for chilling castings is to pour the ...
-Loam. Loam Cores
The composition and mixing of loam has already been described. Loam cores made over a perforated barrel or pipe have also been alluded to. Loam Cores Where the core is long and can best be suppo...
-Simple Cylinder Moulding
In the moulding of a simple cylinder like that shown in Fig. 72, the casting is made with a shrink-head as shown by the dotted lines at a. This is to receive the dirt and washings from the mould. Loam...
-Engine Cylinder Moulding
One of the most common jobs of moulding that is done in louin is that of large engine cylinders. In this work partial patterns are usually provided. These patterns ordinarily consist of the core boxes...
-Loose Pieces Moulding
In the description of the moulding of the last example, a reference was made to loose pieces on the pattern that do not draw out of the sand with the main body. Loose pieced are used where it is desir...
-Forging
The art of forging is one of the oldest in the history of man. As already noted in Foundry Work, while the art of smelting must have preceded that of forging, the latter antedated by many centuries ...
-The Forge
While forges or fires are of many shapes and sizes the principles of their cor...Iraction remain the same. An ordinary blacksmith forge is a fireplace in the bottom of which there is a tuyere for admi...
-Forging Tools
The tools used in a blacksmith shop are of the simplest description. The most important are the hammer and anvil. Then come the tongs, flatteis, swages, drifts, fallen, punches, calipers, etc. Hamm...
-Anvils
Next to the hammer in importance is the anvil. This may be any block of metal upon which the piece to be shaped is laid. The anvil must be of such a weight that it can absorb the blows that are struck...
-Tongs
Next to the hammer and anvil in importance and usage are the tongs. They vary in size from those suitable for holding the smallest wires to those capable of handling ingots and bars of many tons in we...
-Heating Metals
Let us first consider the working of iron and steel. The temperature at which the different irons and steels may be heated without injury depends upon their quality. Ordinarily iron can be heated to a...
-Wetting Coal
Combustion of coal is not greatly promoted by the use of water. Water is and in a forge tire to limit the size of the same. By thus limiting the size of the fire the intensity of the draft through the...
-Forging Shaping and Finishing
Shaping After the metal has been heated it is shaped with the hammer. This shaping may consist of drawing, upsetting or bending. In drawing a bar of iron it is made longer and of a smaller diameter...
-Examples For Practice Forging
1. What is the weight of a bar of flat iron 1 foot long, 2 inches wide and inch thick ? Ans. 6.25 pounds. 2. What is the weight of a bar of flat iron 4 feet 6 inches long, 2 inches wide and 1 in...
-Bolts
In direct distinction from the drawing out of the point of the staple just described is the upsetting of the head of a bolt. Drawing out or drawing down may be defined as the reducing of a bar of meta...
-Welding
The process of welding consists of heating the faces of the two pieces to be joined until they are at the point of fusion (called the welding heat), then uniting them by blows or pressure. The tempera...
-Eye Bolt
The making of an eye bolt is a common piece of work. It may be made in either one of two ways. The easier method produces an eye shaped as in Fig. 56. To make such a bolt, first scarf the end so that ...
-Hook Making
The making of hooks to be used for hoisting and other purposes is important. Such a book is shown in Fig. 59. It is made with an eye for the reception of a chain and varies in size between that eye an...
-Wrenches
A simple tool that is frequently called for is the S wrench. This wrench is usually made with a gap at each end, suited for nuts of different sizes. It is shown complete in Fig. 61 Fig....
-Hammer Heads
Hammer Heads are usually made in dies and by power. The various forms through which the metal passes in die forging will serve as a guide for making a hammer head by hand. If a ball pene hammer like t...
-Tong Making
Every blacksmith is constantly being called upon to make his own tongs. As already stated, these tools must be of a great variety of shapes in order to meet the demands of the shop. The different styl...
-Rings And Chains
Rings and chains are made in a manner similar to that used for eyebolts. The metal is cut off to the proper length and the ends are scarfed as shown in Fig. 50. It is then bent to the desired form of ...
-Tempering
The general process of tempering in described in Metallurgy. Steel is hardened by cooling suddenly and softened by cooling slowly from a red heat. In hardening, care should be taken to plunge the to...
-Hardening And Annealing Brass
The process of hardening and annealing brass is exactly the reverse of that used with steel. Brass is hardened when it is heated and allowed to cool slowly ; it is softened or annealed when heated and...
-Brazing Iron And Steel
Closely allied to welding is a method of uniting iron and steel called brazing. By this means two pieces are soldered together by a brass alloy. It is used where the parts are so small or thin that th...
-Forging Hammers
We have up to this time dealt with those light forms of work that can be performed by band. The greater portion of all forging work now done, both large and small, is performed with the aid of power d...
-Reverberatory Furnaces
It has been shown that for light work in the blacksmith shop the open fire either of anthracite or bituminous coal will give satisfactory results. In both of these cases the metal to be heated is in d...
-Connecting Rods
In every shop where steam engines are manufactured the smith is called upon to forge the connecting rods. These are of great variety in size as well as in the shape of the stub ends. They are preferab...
-Shaft Forging
The forging of shafts for steam vessels is an important piece of work and demands close attention to every detail. A most important thing for the smith to know before beginning work is the location of...
-Crank Axles
An important piece of work is the making of crank axles for steam engines either for marine or stationary service. In order to forge a small two-arm crank-shaft like that shown in Fig. 83, a soft, ten...
-Electric Welding Development
The art of welding iron is probably as old as the earliest production of that metal by man; in fact, the reduction of iron in the primitive forges demanded the union by welding of the reduced particle...
-Electric Welding Development. Continued
It is a wide range between buckles, typewriter bars and umbrella rods to the local annealing of armour plates on warships, but the electric welder covers that range. It is no wider, however, than that...
-Joint Welding
While in most cases of electric welding the joint forms what is known as a butt weld, with a burr or extension of metal at the joint, which, according to conditions, is either allowed to remain or is ...
-The Ideal Foreman. Qualifications Requisite For His Highest Success
Any attempt to outline an ideal is apt to be met with many differences of opinion, if not actual denials. One reason for this difference of opinion is found in the fact that ideals are always on a sli...
-Review Question's On The Subject Of Machine Design
Practical Test Questions In the foregoing sections of this Cyclopedia numerous illustrative examples are worked out in detail in order to show the application of the various methods and principles....
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Pattern Making
1. What are some of the causes of warping in lumber? 2a. When is metal used for patterns? 2b. Why is metal better than woo? 3. Why should plenty of oil be used on an oil-stone? 4. Explain with s...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Foundry Work
1. What is the meaning of the term wrought iron? 2. What is a flux? When is it used? 3. What is the difference between the cope and drag? 4. What is the weight of a cast-iron plate 16 inche...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Forging
1. Why is a piece of metal nicked in order to break it when cold ? 2. What is the weight of a bar of flat iron inch thick, 2 inches wide and 13 feet 6 inches long? 3. What length of 3-inch rou...
-Machine Shop Management. Manufacturing
Manufacturing Conditions And Developments Millions of dollars are annually spent in building new factories. Other millions are spent in equipping them with the best machinery that trained and exper...
-Machine Shop Management. Manufacturing. Part 2
Tools Of The Early Mechanic The early mechanic had few tools and appliances wherewith to perform his work; and these were crude and primitive, consisting principally of a limited number of hand-too...
-Machine Shop Management. Manufacturing. Part 3
Our critic comes back to the charge by saying that the Steel Corporation has bought up many steel plants in various parts of the country, and added them to its already enormous properties. Quite tr...
-Machine Shop Management. Manufacturing. Part 4
Vaucanson Milling cutters were made in America by one of the early machinists, a Frenchman named Vaucanson, who died in 1872. A sample of these had a hexagonal instead of a round hole, and the pitc...
-Machine Shop Management
Modern Meaning Of Shop Management The present understanding of the term Shop Management is quite different from the sense in which it was used years ago. Formerly the management of the shop was ves...
-A Typical Manufacturing Plant
For the purpose of taking up the question of Management in a systematic and practical manner, we must first assume that we have a shop to manage; and secondly, that it is of the usual type of manufact...
-A Typical Manufacturing Plant. Part 2
The Pattern Shop The Pattern Shop building will often be composed of three floors. On the ground floor will be the Carpenter Shop and flask making and repairing work. On the second floor will be th...
-A Typical Manufacturing Plant. Part 3
The General Manager The General Manager has a personal Assistant, and, for his commercial affairs, the service of a commercial Accountant and a Cashier. Other office employees are similar in number...
-Manufacturing Shop Management
Referring to the Chart, Fig. 2, it will be noticed that the rectangular figures representing different offices, departments, or officials are connected by lines. These are commonly called lines of aut...
-Shop Methods And Records
From the principles that have been advanced in connection with the subjects of Manufacturing and Shop Management, it will be readily seen that the work of the manufacturing plant of the present day is...
-Selection And Employment Of Workmen
This is an important matter, since it costs money to introduce new men in any business, and requires from a day or two to several weeks for the new man to become sufficiently accustomed to his work an...
-The Employment Agent
In large concerns, an official is regularly appointed as an Employment Agent, and it is his duty to keep the office and the shops supplied with competent men engaged at reasonable wages. He must there...
-Time Keeping In The Manufacturing Plant
As cost of labor is usually greater than any other in the manufacturing plant, and frequently greater than all other factors in the cost of manufacturing, it is very important that the records pertain...
-Time Keeping In The Manufacturing Plant. Continued
Recording-Clock Tune-Cards Recording time clocks are also made which operate automatically to produce changes in the position of the card dropped into a receptacle provided for the purpose, such, t...
-Giving Orders For Manufacturing Work
As ordinarily considered, orders are of two general classes, namely: Fig. 18. Production Order. 1. Production Orders, by which the production departments are set to work manufacturin...
-Storing And Issuing Stock And Materials
The orders having been put in force in the shop, the next step is to obtain the necessary material or stock with which to do the work. All purchased stock, material, and stores are turned over to t...
-Follow-Up Methods For Tracing Orders In The Shop
The Sub-Production orders having been put into the departments, the first one will order the material for starting the work. For instance, the first step may be upon iron castings. Theoretically all s...
-Tool-Room Methods
A large number of small tools such as drills, taps, reamers, and the like, and also numerous jigs and fixtures of various kinds, are drawn daily from the Tool Room and returned there after being used....
-Metallurgy. Introductory
Metal Characteristics The metallic state in general is characterized by the presence of innumerable freely moving negatively charged and extraordinarily minute particles called electrons. Their pre...
-General Metallurgy. Properties Of Metals. Reducibility
The useful metals cover almost the entire range of the metallic elements in the electrochemical series. This generalization of the chemist is the same as the metallurgist's statement that the metals h...
-Metal Crystallization
One of the superlative properties of all metals is crystallization, and on the exact condition of the crystals in any metal often hangs every degree of usefulness. An intimate glimpse into the complex...
-Metal Hardness
The hardness of a metal often is of prime importance. The ideas of scratching, cutting, indentation, transient impact, and permanent deformation all are conveyed in the term hardness. Various measurin...
-Metal Strength Factors
This property of resistance to pulling apart or bending is modified wonderfully both by the chemical nature of the particles of a metal, by their size, and by the way in which they are arranged. The p...
-Ores
Economic Value An ore is a metal-bearing substance from which a metal, alloy, or metallic compound can be extracted at a profit. Ores are the aggregates containing the minerals of economic value. G...
-Pretreatment Of Ores
Metallurgical Processes In Ore Dressing Besides the numerous and highly technical methods of ore concentration as practiced in the art of ore dressing, there are a few processes distinctively metal...
-Furnaces
Classification A bewildering variety of furnaces is in use in the metallurgical industries. Almost every metal, as well as each process for the same metal, has its own particular furnace. Only in t...
-Metallurgy Of Iron And Steel Ores Of Iron
Supply And Consumption Although the world is using up iron ores at the rate of over 150,000,000 tons a year, the supply keeps increasing from new discoveries and better preparation of lean ores. Th...
-Blast Furnace
Importance The blast furnace is the real heart of the iron and steel industry; it is the most important device which mankind yet has developed. The continued operation of the furnaces is related to...
-Secondary Elements Of Furnace Plant
While the blast furnace is the most vital part of any iron or steel plant, there are accessories absolutely essential for its operations. Raw Material Enormous stocks of ore, limestone, and coke...
-Constitution Of Iron Composition Of Pig Iron
Elements Present Having studied the powerful reducing condition inside the iron blast furnace, it is no surprise to us to know that any other element present in the ore and as easily reduced as iro...
-Iron And Carbon
Various Proportions. Ferrite The scientific name of pure iron is ferrite which melts at 1530 C. On heating pure iron, it loses its magnetism at 768 degrees and changes its entire crystalline n...
-Foundry Practice
Field Of Operations The great industry which annually melts some 61000,000 tons of iron into a bewildering variety of objects, large and small, hard and soft, some for strength and some for beauty,...
-Wrought Iron
Process At one time, wrought iron was far more important, relatively, than it is now. As a matter of fact it is surprising that the process can survive at all. The process is essentially a melting ...
-Manufacture Of Steel Carbonizing Solid Iron
Process This is the oldest method of making steel; it is known as the cementation process and practically is superseded at the present time. The process consists of heating wrought iron in a packin...
-Crucible Steel
Process Original, The invention of the process of making crucible steel by Huntsman, near Sheffield, England, in 1740, was a great advance in the art of making steel. He melted bars of cemented ste...
-Bessemer Steel
History During the fifties of the last century, Kelly, in the United States, and Bessemer, in England, both discovered that the carbon could be burned out of pig iron simply by blowing air through ...
-Open-Hearth Steel
History. Development Of Regenerative Heating At about the time Bessemer was developing his process, other men were perfecting an improved reverberatory furnace. Steel-making temperatures had been o...
-Ingots
Defects Of Solidification We have learned in considering the general properties of metals that they always crystalize upon solidification. This is eminently so in the case of the molten steel solid...
-Mechanical Treatment
Importance The mechanical treatment of steel, through its influence on the structural units of the metal, is as important as any phase in the production of a suitable finished product. It has the m...
-Heat Treatment Of Steel
Ordinary Materials Heat treatment of steel is a matter of the utmost importance and is absolutely essential for making the best materials. It is fortunate that the mechanical shaping of steel is do...
-Electric Furnaces In Iron And Steel Manufacture
Furnaces For Pig-Iron Production Electric furnaces for making pig iron are meeting with some success in centers where electricity is cheapest and where iron ore also is available; this is possible ...
-Miscellaneous Metals. Copper
Important Characteristics In the United States coal is the most valuable mineral product, pig iron is the next most valuable, and copper comes third with a yearly production of over a half million ...
-Reducing Copper Ores
Methods Of the several methods of reducing copper ores outlined below there are now only two of minor importance - strong reduction, and pyritic smelting for sulphide ores. All the others at presen...
-Reducing Copper Ores. Continued
Semipyritic Type. Characteristics Semipyritic smelting is so called because, to a certain extent, the sulphur in the ore is utilized as fuel; this means that the coke in the charge can be kept much...
-Refining Copper Metal
Furnace Method. Practical Necessity The great bulk of copper as produced in converters and as turned out is by no means pure enough for refining by electricity; in fact the electrolytic refining of...
-Silver Refinery For A Copper Plant
Supplementary Treatment There are only a few copper refineries to work up the entire tonnage of the metal produced in this country; the amount of precious metals found in the blister copper is cons...
-Lead. Lead-Silver Smelting
Relative Importance The smelting of lead is one of the important metallurgical industries of the United States, and we are able to produce considerably more lead than any other single country. Work...
-Methods Of Refining Lead
Electrolyzlng Lead is now refined in four large plants by electrolyzing in fluosilicate solution. The main advantage is the recovery of bismuth, but, even with the recovery of bismuth, it is questi...
-Zinc
Ores Of Zinc. Occurrence The United States is especially favored in the matter of zinc ores and so is able to produce more of the metal than is any other nation. In New Jersey occurs the mineral, w...
-Zinc Ore Reduction
Zinc Characteristics The properties of zinc are such that the metal is not recoverable like iron, copper, and lead, which we have been' studying. Zinc melts at 419.4 C. and boils at 940 C...
-Cadmium
Usage This is a very useful metal for low-melting alloys and for electroplating. Otherwise its uses are limited. No ores are known; it is recovered as a by-product from zinc smelting. Fractional...
-Gold. Recovery Of Gold
Methods. Placer Mining Of the four main channels through which our supply is derived, the simplest and most ancient method for recovering gold is by washing sands and gravels which contain it in so...
-Aluminum
Commercial Recovery Although aluminum is the element next most abundant to oxygen and silicon in the earth's crust, the recovery of the metal is a distinctively modern metallurgical feat. For ne...
-Nickel
Occurrence And Use This metal very much resembles iron in its properties. Its far more extensive use is precluded by nothing less than the natural scarcity of its ores. A few deposits of silicate m...
-Antimony, Bismuth, Mercury, Tin
Common Characteristics These four metals are all reduced easily from their oxides without any difficulty at all. All four likewise are perfectly stable at ordinary temperatures, while, at higher te...
-Tungsten
Occurrence This metal occurs sparingly in nature as tungstate of calcium, of iron, and of manganese. The minerals are conspicuous on account of their high specific gravity. Reduction. Metal T...
-Sodium
Reduction Process Metallic sodium can be produced by several of the most energetic straight chemical reductions at very high temperatures, but the electrolysis of its fused hydroxide has proved che...
-Magnesium
Electrolytic Reduction Magnesium is another metal which is produced solely by electrolysis. In this case the double salt of magnesium and potassium chloride is kept molten in an iron receptacle and...
-Platinum, Palladium, Iridium
Supply These three metals are growing continually more valuable because their supply is not increasing while their use is, both for industrial and ornamental purposes. The U. S. Geological Surve...
-Seven Alloying Elements
Silicon, Manganese, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Molybdenum, Cobalt Adaptability For Ferro-Alloys It is a significant fact that the above elements - to which may be added nickel and tungsten - mak...
-Welding. Introduction
Welding An Ancient Art The art of joining metals is one of the oldest known to man. Ever since the first cave dweller or half-monkey man hammered his first piece of iron or copper between two stone...
-Metals And Their Natures
Iron and steel are the most useful and the most used metals we have and, since steel is merely iron with the addition of a small percentage of carbon and a few other elements, we will consider iron fi...
-Welding Processes
Classification While it is true that there are many variations of the principal processes of welding and joining metals, they may safely be placed in one of four general classes: smith or forge wel...
-Smith Welding Or Forging
Smith welding is the process of joining metals by laying the pieces together and hammering at the place of contact until they become one piece. Most metals must be heated nearly to the temperature at ...
-Smith Welding Or Forging. Continued
Tongs Tongs are of many kinds and special ones are easily made when peculiar pieces are to be worked. Flat tongs, Fig. 21, are used for flat iron bars, strips, or plates. Pick-up tongs, Fig. 22, ha...
-Soldering And Brazing
Both the soldering and brazing processes are similar to welding in so far as they are methods of uniting metals, but they are different in that the filling or joining material is usually of different ...
-Soldering And Brazing. Continued
Brazing Brazing is a process similar to soldering, the main difference being in the use of a harder filling material and one requiring a higher melting temperature. Gold, silver, copper, brass, and...
-Riveting
Riveting is not a welding process but it deserves a place in any treatise on the art of joining metals because it is in such general use for that purpose. While it is true that riveting is rapidly bei...
-Electric-Arc Welding And Cutting
Historical The use of the electric arc as the source of heat for joining and melting metals is one of the oldest applications of electricity and yet it was not developed to a commercially practical...
-Electric Welding Processes
General Features The process of welding or cutting with the electric arc is possible with nothing more than a source of current at a suitable voltage, some means for regulating the amount of curren...
-Electric Welding Equipment
Simple Equipment Wasteful The equipment required for electric-are welding depends largely upon the nature of the work to be done but, of course, the most complete apparatus does the best work, as i...
-Electric Welding Equipment. Part 2
Westinghouse Arc Welder The equipment produced by the Westinghouse Electric Company consists of a motor-generator set with switchboards for controlling the machine and the welding circuits. The gen...
-Electric Welding Equipment. Part 3
C & C Electric-Arc-Welding System The C & C system of electric arc welding has been developed during a longer period than any of the others, because the C & C Company is the pioneer in that field i...
-Welding Operations
Amount Of Current Used Welding operations are of various kinds and take different amounts of current, depending upon the nature of the material worked upon, the size and shape of the piece, and the...
-Welding Operations. Part 2
Boilers And Tanks Boilers and tanks offer one of the best fields for the application of the Slavianoff, or metallic welding, process and the adoption of this method in manufacturing, Fig. 76, as we...
-Welding Operations. Part 3
From Table III, it will be seen that it is necessary to use filling material of the proper composition if the weld is to be the same in composition as the original article. By merely using electrodes ...
-Electric-Arc Cutting
Advantages Of The Method Cutting with the electric arc can be done very rapidly and economically and is done a great deal in foundries, scrap yards, Fig. 87, and other places. The slot cut is not s...
-Electric Butt And Spot Weldinq
Characteristics And Development Of The Process The use of the electric current to heat metals to the welding point, by passing the current through the joint until the metal becomes plastic and then...
-Electric Butt And Spot Weldinq. Continued
Source Of Power. A. C. City Circuits With Transformer The source of power for butt and spot welders should have the same general characteristics as for arc welding; that is, they should deliver the...
-Processes Of Welding By Resistance Method
Classification The process of welding by the resistance method is the simplest of all methods of joining metals, and is also the quickest and cheapest method for work which may be easily handled. W...
-Applications To Manufacture
General Applications The applications of welding by this process are too numerous to mention here, but some of the more important ones are in the manufacture of wagon tires, axles, iron wheels, bic...
-Applications To Manufacture. Part 2
Sheet Brass Sheet brass can be welded to brass or to sheet Steel after sufficient experimenting to determine the proper heat and pressure. Sheet Aluminum Sheet aluminum of some grades can be ...
-Applications To Manufacture. Part 3
Watertown Arsenal Tests A number of years ago, a series of tests on electric welding was conducted at the Watertown Arsenal, and the following results were reported in the Transactions of the Ameri...
-Gas Welding And Cutting
General Features Of Method Hot-flame, or gas, welding and cutting has been a practical process for so long that there is no very clear record as to just when it first came into commercial use, but ...
-Gases Used For Welding
Gases and their sources form a very important part of the study of the gas-welding processes, because a knowledge of these will often be of great value in determining the best process for particular p...
-Gases Used For Welding. Continued
Hydrogen Hydrogen is one of the elements and is the lightest substance known. It is obtained by the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen, both gases being collected and used. Hydrogen is...
-Oxy-Acetylene Welding
General Features The oxy-acetylene welding process is the best known of the hot-flame systems and is based on the combustion of oxygen and acetylene at the tip of a torch as the source of heat. Thi...
-Oxy-Acetylene Welding. Part 2
Oxygen Generator Oxygen generators are much more elaborate devices than acetylene generators and the methods of action of the large types have already been given on pp. 98 and 99. Most of the s...
-Oxy-Acetylene Welding. Part 3
Effects On Various Metals Aluminum is very sensitive to oxygen; so an excess of acetylene in the flame is desirable when welding it. The metal does not run readily and must be puddled into place wi...
-Oxy-Acetylene Welding. Part 4
Note: The acetylene is used at a pressure of about 3 lbs. per sq. in. The cost of oxygen is estimated at 3 cents, and of acetylene at 1 cent per cubic foot. Labor is estimated at 30 cents per hour. ...
-Oxy-Hydrogen Welding
The use of oxygen and hydrogen as the gases for welding and cutting is older than the oxy-acetylene process and dates back to before the production of oxygen by either electrolysis or liquefaction of ...
-Oxy-Pintsch Gas Welding
The use of pintsch gas and oxygen for hot-flame welding is the latest addition to the list of possible systems for general use, and was developed by the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company, New Yo...
-Blau-Gas Welding
General Advantages The advantages claimed for the blau-gas process are safeness, cheapness, compressibility of the gas to a liquid, high B. T. U. (1800 per cubic feet), and convenience. On the othe...
-Cutting With Gases
All of the gases described for welding are also used for cutting and offer some advantages over other methods of cutting for various purposes. The work is done by heating the metal to about 1500 degre...
-Thermit Welding
Welding by the thermit process is really cast welding, because it is accomplished by pouring thermit steel around the parts to be joined. The main difference between this and other methods of cast...
-Thermit Welding. Continued
Thermit Required For A Given Weld The amount of thermit required to make a given weld will be twice the amount necessary to fill the space formed by the wax collar, because one-half of the weight o...
-Dies And Sheet Metal Stamping. Die-Making And Usage
Study Of Details Having become familiar with the various types of dies for stamping sheet metal, together with a general idea as to the methods employed in making the dies as outlined in a general ...
-Blanking And Shearing Types. Making Simple Punch And Die
Size Factor In Fig. 306 of Tool-Making, Part III, are shown a blanking punch and die for use on heavy stock such as boiler plates. In a simple tool of this character it is immaterial which part is ...
-Blanking And Shearing Types. Making Simple Punch And Die. Part 2
Alignment Of Stripper After machining the top surface of the shoe, the bushing is inserted. At this point is where the die-maker must be careful on this particular job. The haphazard trust-to-chanc...
-Blanking And Shearing Types. Making Simple Punch And Die. Part 3
Preparing Die Block Having ascertained the brand of steel, the block is cut from the bar, and the first surface to be planed or milled should be the widest surface; this giving a broad bearing for ...
-Blanking And Shearing Types. Making Simple Punch And Die. Part 4
Shaping Of Die. Roughing Out If a die filing machine, Fig. 319, Tool-Making, Part III, is at hand, a narrow hack-saw blade is placed through the hole drilled in the corner of the die, and the blade...
-Blanking And Shearing Types. Making Simple Punch And Die. Part 5
Tempering Assuming that the die is ready to harden and having the screw holes plugged - with a soft machine screw if desired - the die is heated slowly and evenly in a muffled fire preferably. A bl...
-Making Sub-Press Dies
Typical Features Plain blanking dies as described this far are of the simpler type and are used only where a variation in blanks is permissible, for any die that allows the blanks to pass clear thr...
-Making Sub-Press Dies. Part 2
Making Plunger The button e, Fig. 18, is next made on centers and the thread chased. Then the plunger d is made; being roughly turned on centers to say, within 1/16 inch of finish size. The long ho...
-Making Sub-Press Dies. Part 3
Use Of Special Cutters Before milling the spaces on the stripper and the blanking punch, it is necessary to make a number of broaches, c, Fig. 19. The number of broaches being governed by the depth...
-Sectional Dies
Advantages When dies are large or when there are many weak projections, it is good practice to make the dies in sections. One reason is that the individual pieces of alarge die can be machined t...
-Sectional Dies. Part 2
Doweling Hardened Pieces After all pieces are roughed out the screw and dowel holes are drilled. The dowel holes, however, are drilled, and then tapped with a fine-pitch thread; if a 3/8-inch dowel...
-Sectional Dies. Part 3
Placing Die Pieces On Shoe After all pieces have been ground to exact dimensions, they are attached to the die shoe and placed in position by soft test pieces that have been machined the right thic...
-Making Gang Dies
Accuracy Required In Making By referring to Fig. 341, Tool-Making, Part III, it will be noted that in addition to the blanking punch there are two piercing punches attached to the same holder. Sinc...
-Making Gang Dies. Continued
Punches The punch plate is set on the die, care being exercised that the proper side is placed against the die and that the punch holes line up approximately with the die holes. The outline of the ...
-Shearing Dies
Two-Punch Principle The cutting action of dies termed shearing dies is similar to the action of shears, from whence they derive the name. When in use one part is placed in the punch holder and is c...
-Shearing Dies. Continued
Surfacing After hardening, the face of the punch should be ground to insure a good sharp cutting edge all around, which is an aid when transferring the outline to the upper half. The back of the pu...
-Drawing And Forming Types Drawing Dies
Finding Size Of Blank Drawing dies as a rule are very simple to make, as themajority of drawn work is round, which means lathe work. Assuming that dies for the drawn cup in Fig. 48 are to be made, ...
-Forming Dies
Method Of Making Forming dies, while very simple in design and to make, often present difficulties, inasmuch as the metal being formed does not always form up to just the shape of the die or the de...
-Embossing Dies
Embossing Embossing means to raise a figure, or design, above the flat surface of sheet stock. In operation the best results are obtained from the blow by attaching the force, or punch, or male mem...
-Operation Of Fluid Dies
Usage There are many articles that can be formed by filling a cup with soapy water, placing the cup in a die, and allowing a punch - preferably in a drop hammer - to strike the contained water and ...
-Roller Dies
The pieces b or d, Fig. 58, could also be made by the rolling dies in Fig. 60. The arbor a that the cup or tubing is placed on is considerably smaller than the inside of the cup or tubing, to allow th...
-Forming Of Die
Locating Hole When making fluid dies the two halves are machined exactly the same height, and the faces that come in contact with each other when the dies are together must be at right angles with ...
-Drop-Forging Die Operation
Typical Operation When the term drop-forging dies is used it is generally understood to mean forging dies for forming red-hot metal. In operation these are two die blocks - upper and lower - as in ...
-Drop-Forging Die Operation. Part 2
Forming Dovetailed Shank Having secured the block to the planer, a cut is taken across the top, and, chalking or coppering the top, the width of the dovetail is scribed on the face. The stock is th...
-Drop-Forging Die Operation. Part 3
Forming The die block is fastened to lathe the faceplate, and the prickpunch mark is indicated true. The recess for the hub of the forging is turned in the block the proper depth and tapering. Usua...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Machine Shop Management
1. Why were the early New Englanders forced to become manufacturers? 2. What was the occasion of the first boycotting movement in this country? 3. What is meant by a combination of capital? 4...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Metallurgy
1. (a) What is a metal? (b) What is metallurgy? 2. Tabulate the comparative reducibilities of the metals. 3. What is meant by reducibility? 4. State and discuss briefly the various physical p...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Welding
1. What does welding mean, as customarily applied? 2. Upon what factors does successful welding depend? 3. How may welding processes be classified? 4. What does autogenous welding mean? 5....
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Die Making And Metal Stamping
1. What is essentially the first step in making any tool from a tool-maker's standpoint? 2. What rule is given for clearance? 3. Give one good method for making the punch and die. 4. What is ...
-Tool-Making. Part I. Introduction The Tool-Maker And His Equipment
As generally understood, a tool-maker is a machinist who has a greater knowledge of the trade than is sufficient simply to enable him to make such machines or parts of machines as may be the regular p...
-Necessary Tools For Tool-Making
A vernier height gage, Fig. 4, is very useful for making drill jigs, templets, and other tools requiring very accurate measurements, and for locating working points, holes, or drill bushings. It is us...
-Tool Materials And Their Treatment
Cast Iron On account of its low cost, cast iron is especially adapted for certain parts of machines and tools. A pattern may be made and a casting of the desired shape and size produced on short no...
-Tool Steel Annealing
In order that it may be soft enough to work easily, tool steel must be annealed. The process consists in heating the metal to a uniform red heat and allowing it to cool slowly. Steel can generally be ...
-Steel Hardening
Tool steel may be hardened by heating to a low red heat and plunging in some cooling medium, as water, brine, or oil. Use Of Pyrometers. Necessity For Accurate Temperature Readings At the presen...
-Pack Hardening Of Cutting Tools
This method gives excellent results with pieces that cannot be hardened by the methods ordinarily employed without risk of springing or cracking. The article is packed in an iron box, with some carbon...
-Tempering of Cutting Tools
The hardening of a cutting tool makes it too brittle to stand up well when in use, and consequently it is necessary to reduce the brittleness somewhat. This process of softening, known as drawing the ...
-Heating With Powdered Cyanide Of Potassium
When an article of wrought iron or machine steel is to have a hard surface, it is treated while red hot with some material that forms a coating or case of steel, which hardens if dipped into water whi...
-Alloy Steels
The tool steel that is generally used for cutting tools is made by the crucible process. If the steel depends on the carbon in it for its hardening qualities, it is called carbon tool steel. High-carb...
-Variations In Hardening For Different Tools
When hardening tools made from high-speed steel, it is necessary to vary the treatment to suit the particular class of tool. For instance, it is customary to heat ordinary lathe and planer tools nearl...
-Tempering For Delicate Tools
When taps, milling-machine cutters, and other tools having weak projecting portions are made from this steel, it is necessary to draw the temper in order to reduce the brittleness to a point where the...
-Merits Of High-Speed Steel Tools
The results obtained from the use of high-speed steel tools are dependent in a very large measure on the way in which the tools are made and used. As they are principally valuable for roughing purpose...
-Standard Tools. Drills. Flat Drills
The forms of drills commonly used in the machine shop are the flat drill, straightway drill, single-lip drill, and twist drill. Flat drills, intended for use in the engine lathe for chucking, are u...
-Twist Drills
It is, in general, cheaper and more satisfactory to buy twist drills than to attempt their manufacture in the ordinary machine shop; but at times some emergency may call for a special size or length o...
-Twist Drills. Continued
Hardening Twist drills are hardened by special processes which, generally speaking, are not understood outside the shop where the drills are made. Very good results, however, may be obtained if the...
-Drills For Deep Holes
A good drill for use in drilling deep holes, in such work as gun barrels, machine spindles, and similar pieces, is shown in Fig. 42. This tool was brought out by the Pratt and Whitney Company, of Hart...
-Reamers
A reamer is a tool that makes a smooth, accurate hole. In many cases, however, reamers are used to enlarge cored holes, or holes already drilled, without particular reference to the exact size or cond...
-Fluted Chucking Reamers
The same general instructions given for making fluted hand reamers are applicable to this form, except that the shank may be finished to size before the reamer is hardened, unless the shank is to fit ...
-Rose Reamers
This form of reamer has its cutting edges only on the end, the grooves being cut the entire length of body to reduce the amount of frictional bearing surface and to furnish a channel to conduct the lu...
-Single-Lipped Reamers
A single-lipped reamer is very useful for reaming a straight hole. When the nature of the hole or the condition of the stock would cause the ordinary forms to run, the single-lipped reamer will cut a ...
-Three- And Four-Lipped Roughing Reamers
These are used to advantage in chucking machines, for enlarging cored holes or holes that have been drilled smaller than the required size. Large holes in solid stock are often made below size, as mos...
-Inserted-Blade Reamers
The particular advantage of solid reamers with inserted teeth is that, when worn, new blades may be put in at a cost much less than that of a new solid reamer. Inserted-blade reamers are usually made ...
-Adjustable Reamers
These are made in a form that allows them to be adjusted to a varying size of parts of machines where interchangeability is not essential. Fig. 63 shows the cheapest type of adjustable reamer, one som...
-Shell Reamer
As a matter of economy, the larger sizes of reamers are sometimes made in the form of shell reamers, as shown in Figs. 67 and 68. As several reamers may be used on the same arbor, there is a considera...
-Taper Reamers
If a taper reamer is intended for finishing a hole, the same general instructions for making fluted hand reamers may be followed except that instead of being straight, the body or cutting part is tape...
-Formed Reamers. Chambering Reamers
These are used for holes of an irregular shape, or rather of a shape neither straight nor tapering. They are used chiefly by gun-makers in reaming the end of the gun barrel for the shell, and are term...
-Square Reamers
Reamers used for finishing a long hole that must be very smooth, are often made of the form shown in Fig. 74. This reamer is drawn through the hole by means of the shank B, the cutting portion being a...
-Arbors. Tool-Steel Mandrels
The ordinary taper arbor, known as the mandrel, is in common use in most machine shops. Up to and including a diameter of 1 1/2 inches, mandrels are made of tool steel, hardened all over and ground to...
-Expanding Mandrels
There are several forms of expanding mandrels in common use. One form has a sleeve with a taper hole, fitting on a mandrel with a corresponding taper; the sleeve is split to allow it to expand as it i...
-Eccentric Arbors
Arbors are made eccentric in order that the outside of a piece of work may be made eccentric to the hole running through it, as shown in Fig. 83. When making an eccentric arbor, the general directi...
-Use Of Jig For Accurate Work
This method of laying off and drilling the eccentric center, may not give the necessary accuracy, and if it does not a jig must be used in drilling the center holes. A suitable jig is shown in Fig. 87...
-Milling-Machine Arbors
Arbors for milling machines should be made from steel strong enough to resist without twisting or springing, the strain caused by tightening the nut. When a limited number of arbors are made, tool ste...
-Process Of Making Taps. Use Of Screw Dies
When making taps 1/4 inch in diameter and smaller, the threads are often cut with screw dies, of which there are two styles. The form of screw plate shown in Fig, 93 is termed a jam. die plate. With t...
-Milling Flutes
After the thread is cut to size and the end chamfered, the tap is ready to be grooved in the milling machine. The tap is held between centers, and the grooves cut with a cutter especially adapted to t...
-Forms Of Flutes
The most commonly used form of flute is that cut with a convex milling cutter for milling half-circles, Fig. 101. The advantages claimed for this form are (1) that the flutes are deep enough to provid...
-Machine Taps
As the name implies, machine taps are intended for screw machines, tapping machines, and lathes. They are held in chucks or collets by their-shanks, and are supported firmly. Consequently the lands ma...
-Taper Taps
When cutting the threads of a taper tap, Fig. 109, it is necessary to use a lathe having a taper attachment, as the pitch of the threads is not correct if the taper is obtained by setting over the tai...
-Screw Die Hobs
Die hobs are finish taps for sizing the thread in screw cutting dies. The several flutes are narrower than those of an ordinary tap, and the lands are correspondingly wider. The tap shown in Fig. 110 ...
-Adjustable Taps
A solid tap made to cut to exact size, having no leeway for wear, soon becomes too small. This fault is overcome by making a tap that may be adjusted from time to time. Another advantage of adjustable...
-Inserted-Blade Taps
The first cost of an inserted-blade tap may not be much less than that of a solid tap of the same size, yet the comparative cheapness of new blades, which can be inserted in the same body or holder wh...
-Thread Forms
Taps one-quarter of an inch in diameter and smaller are, as a rule, made with V-threads whose sides form an included angle of 60 degrees, or, with round top and bottom threads. Taps larger than one-qu...
-Taps For Square Threads
Although the square thread is not so extensively used as formerly, having given place in many shops to the Acme Standard, yet it is sometimes necessary to make taps for this form. Steel sufficientl...
-Steel For Taps
While ordinary crucible tool steel is extensively used in making taps, many makers assert that the best steel for use in tapping cast iron and brass is one which has, in addition to the usual composit...
-Tool-Making. Part II. Standard Tools. Thread-Cutting Dies
The size of a die is always denoted by the diameter of screw it will cut; a die that will cut a 1/2-inch screw is called a 1/2-inch die, irrespective of the outside diameter of the die itself. Thre...
-Adjustable Type Thread-Cutting Dies
Method Of Adjustment While round dies for screw-machine work may be made solid for roughing out a thread that is to be finished by another die, the finish die should be made adjustable. When making...
-Spring Screw-Threading Dies
This form of die, Fig. 135, is adjusted by means of a clamp collar as shown in Fig. 136. In some shops it is the only form of screw-threading die used for screw-machine work. When so used, it should b...
-Die Holders
When cutting threads in screw machines and turret lathes, dies are held in die holders, which are constructed in two parts, as shown in Fig. 140. The shank A fits the hole in the turret, while the die...
-Counterbores
Two-Edged Flat Counterbores Counterbores are tools used for enlarging a hole without changing its relative position. For an emergency job and for a small number of holes, it is advisable to make as...
-Counterbores For Large Work
For large work, a counterbore may be made, as shown in Fig. 152, A being the cutter bar which should be made of tool steel 1/16 to 1/8 inch larger than finish size. Fig. 149. Counterbor...
-Counterbores With Inserted Pilots
These are useful when the counterbores need frequent sharpening, or when holes of a variety of sizes are to be counterbored to the same size. A common form of counterbore having an inserted pilot is s...
-Combination Counterbores
These are used when it is necessary to change the size of counterbore and pilot frequently. A shank or bar is made to accommodate different sizes of cutters, and sleeves serve as pilots. In Fig. 161, ...
-Hollow Mills
Hollow mills are used in screw machines and turret lathes for roughing down and finishing. They are also used in drill-press work for finishing a projection which must be in some given position; in th...
-Adjustable Hollow Mills
These may be made by following the instructions given for plain hollow mills, except that the mill must be split, Fig. 168, to allow for alteration in size. Fig. 167. Mill with a Strong...
-Forming Tools
Forming tools are used when several pieces are to be made of exactly the same shape. They are particularly valuable for giving the desired shape to formed mills and similar tools, and in duplicating a...
-Milling Cutters
Milling machine cutters are made in two different forms-solid and with inserted teeth. It is customary in most shops to make cutters up to 6 or 8 inches in diameter solid, and above this size with ins...
-Milling Cutters. Part 2
Grinding Shoulders After grinding the hole to size, it is advisable to grind the shoulders on each side of the cutter, straight and true with the hole, in order to prevent any possibility of spring...
-Milling Cutters. Part 3
Spiral Milling Cutters It is customary in most machine shops to make all milling cutters of more than 1/2-inch face with teeth cut spirally as in Fig. 202. The amount of spiral given the teeth vari...
-Milling Cutters. Part 4
Cutters For Milling Slots An excellent form of cutter to be used for such work as milling slots can be made as shown in Fig. 208. This form is less expensive than one having interlocking teeth and ...
-Milling Cutters. Part 5
Keyways To prevent milling machine cutters from turning on the arbor when cutting, it is necessary, especially when taking heavy cuts, to have keyways cut as shown in Fig, 217 and Table VII. Fig...
-Milling Cutters. Part 6
Backing Off By An Eccentric Arbor An arbor may be made having a pair of centers located to give the cutter tooth the required amount of clearance; such an arbor is shown in Fig. 221. The eccentri...
-Milling Cutters. Part 7
General Directions For Backing Off When backing off the teeth for clearance by any of the means described, it is first necessary to form the blank, then to gash it or to cut the notches as describe...
-End Mills
This form of milling machine cutter, Fig. 235, is familiarly known as a shank mill, on account of the shank, which in small milling cutters fits into a collet. This collet in turn fits the hole in the...
-Spiral End Mills
It is sometimes advisable to cut the teeth of end mills spirally, as shown in Fig. 240. As there is no support at the outer end of this form of mill, it will be necessary to cut the teeth of a spiral ...
-T-Slot Cutters
In cutting T-slots in various parts of machines, such as milling machine carriages, etc., it is necessary to use a form of shank mill known as a T-slot cutter. Fig. 243 shows the ordinary form of T-sl...
-Face Milling Cutters
This form of cutter is used in milling surfaces too large to be cut with the ordinary form of milling cutter held on an arbor passing over the work. As the full diameter of the face of the cutter can ...
-Arbors For Face Milling Critters
In Fig. 250 is shown an arbor to be used in connection with face milling cutters. The shank A fits the hole in the spindle of the milling machine. B is the body which fits the taper hole in the cutter...
-Milling Machine Fixtures
When producing work by milling operations, it is necessary to use good cutters; it is equally necessary to employ suitable means of holding the work. It is a waste of money to make costly cutters and ...
-Milling Machine Vises. Usual Type
In the same figure, at B, is shown a portion of a milling machine vise, the work being held between steel jaws. If the work were of a character that made it possible to use jaws extending but little a...
-Milling Vise Operated By Compressed Air
A milling machine vise that is very satisfactory for many classes of work is opened and closed by compressed air, which is carried to the various machines in pipes. When compressed air is so used, it ...
-Drill Jigs
A drill jig is a device for holding work so that one or more holes may be accurately drilled; the locations of the holes may be governed by hardened bushings (guides) through which the drills run. ...
-Simple Slab Jig
A few designs of jigs will now be considered, to show the general requirements and the methods of construction. The slab jig, Fig. 256, is the simplest form in use; it consists of a piece of flat s...
-Locating Holes For Bushings. Approximate Methods
When making any of these styles of jigs, the holes to contain the bushing may be located by several methods. First Method If extremely accurate work is not necessary, a templet may be made, or a...
-Boring Bushing Holes On Milling Machine
In order accurately to locate and machine drill jig bushing holes on a unviersal milling machine, it is necessary to use a machine provided with a corrected screw and index dial for each of the gradua...
-Method Of Locating Jig On Angle Iron
A very satisfactory and convenient method of locating a jig on an angle iron for use on a milling machine in boring bushing holes consists in bolting two good parallels to the face of the angle iron, ...
-Jigs With Legs
When jigs are made for permanent equipment, or if they are to be used constantly, it is well to provide some means of elevating them from the drill-press table to avoid inaccurate work occasioned by c...
-Jig For Rapid Work
While the form of jig shown in Fig. 256 would give satisfaction on certain classes of work, the process of putting the work into the jig and taking it out would be very slow, as it would be necessary ...
-Jig For Holes On Opposite Sides
When holes are to be drilled from opposite sides of a piece of work, as shown in Fig. 285, a jig may be constructed having legs on both upper and lower sides, but both sets of legs should be solid wit...
-Jigs With Cored Holes
As large jigs are usually made from cast iron and as it is advisable, when the holes are large, to core them, it is necessary, in order to lay off the location of the center of the hole, to insert a p...
-Tool-Making. Part III. Standard Tools. Drill Jigs
Fastening Devices Various devices are used to fasten the leaf of a jig to hold the work in place, or to clamp the leaf in position. The forms used depend upon the class of work being operated on. ...
-Box Jig
If the piece of work is of a shape that makes it necessary to operate on all sides, and the outline prevents the use of a clamp jig of the form shown, a box jig must be used. A box jig is made in the ...
-Punch And Die Work
Dies A die used for punching a blank from a sheet of metal is termed a blanking die, and is generally considered as belonging to one of three classes: plain (or simple) die, gang die, or compound d...
-Making Die. Preparation Of Bar
When making several dies of equal width and thickness, a good method is to plane the two sides of a bar to remove the outer surface and to bevel the edges to the required angle. Pieces can then be cut...
-Making Die. Preparation Of Bar. Continued
Die Filing Machine In many shops the die filing machine, shows in Fig. 319, is used for many of the operations of working to shape dies, gages, templets, and various small parts. It is also used in...
-Hardening Dies. Applied To Ordinary Shapes
Before hardening, the stripper and guide screw holes should be drilled and tapped, and the hole drilled for the gage pin or stop. If the name of the part to be punched, or the shelf number of the die ...
-Special Problems In Punching. Punching Bole In Piece Machined To Shape
It is occasionally necessary to punch a bole in a piece of work that has been machined to some given shape. The piece is placed on the face of the die against locating points, or in an opening in a ga...
-Gang Dies
The gang die is designed to punch in one operation the blank itself and also any holes to be made in the blank. Two operations would be necessary if a punch and die of the form shown in Fig. 338 were ...
-Punches With Guide Bushings
A great amount of trouble is experienced in some shops when attempting to use small piercing punches to produce holes in stock as thick as the diameter of the punch, or thicker. This difficulty can be...
-Punches With Tapered Section For Spreading
Trouble is experienced at times with blanking and piercing punches because the metal clings to the punch and pulls the end off in the operation of stripping. This is especially the case when a clingin...
-Bending Die
In order to bend metals to various forms, dies are made for use in punching presses, drop hammers, and various other machines. A simple form of bending die is shown in Fig. 352. The shape of the upper...
-Forming Die. Drawing Die
This type of die is familiarly known as a drawing die. The most common example of the forming die is that used for drawing a flat, circular blank, shown at A, Fig. 358, into a cup-shaped piece, shown ...
-Reversed Die
The die shown in Fig. 362, known as a reversed die, is extensively used in many shops for heavy punching on such work as washers, ball seats, etc. Under many conditions, it works much better than a ga...
-Triple Dies
When it is necessary to punch three or more holes in a tubular or other shaped piece where this form of die can be used, a triple die effects a great saving, as the holes can be punched at one stroke ...
-Follow Dies
The name follow die is given that form of die where the pieces are blanked and bent at one operation. In Fig. 365 is shown a punch and die used in producing the piece shown at the left. The two holes ...
-Curling Dies
These dies are used in forming a loop such as is shown in Fig. 366 and marked After Curling. The loops on hinges and similar pieces are examples of its work. The stock is first punched out as shown ...
-Compound Punching And Bending Dies
In Fig. 369 are shown three views of a punch and die for cutting off and bending to shape at one operation a piece of special form; D is the finished piece. This form of die can be used for a variety ...
-Progressive Dies
Fig. 370 shows a die used to bend a caliper bow to a finished circle. This type of die may be used to produce pieces that are square in form, or of any one of a variety of shapes. It is generally nece...
-Sub-Press Dies
A sub-press is a small self-contained press which is operated by a large press. It is extensively used in watch and clock shops for punching the movements. Fig. 379 shows samples of work done on this ...
-Use Of High-Speed Steel For Dies
The advisability of using high-speed steel for punch-press blanking, bending, forming, and other dies, depends in a large measure on the facilities in the individual shop, for hardening tools made fro...
-Fluid Dies
These are used in the production of various kinds of hollow ware, such as vases, lamp bodies, match safes, etc. The metal may be Britannia ware, silver, or soft brass. The die is generally a casting o...
-Hollow Punches
When work is to be punched from paper, cloth, or leather, hollow cutters or dinking dies are commonly used. They give better satisfaction and are more cheaply produced than the ordinary punch and die ...
-Broaches
The operation of broaching is many times classed under the same head as that of punching with punches and dies, as both may be done in the punch press, and when such is the case, the operations resemb...
-Stock For Broaches. Alloy Steel
Broaches should, as a rule, be made from a good grade of crucible tool steel. Several of the alloy steels work exceptionally well for broaches that are to be subjected to heavy pulls; this is especial...
-Making Draw Broaches. Cutting And Turning To Size
No general method can be given for making all forms of draw broaches, as the desirable method depends on the form of the finished tool. If the broach is to be used for producing square, hexagonal, or ...
-Drop-Forging Dies
It is extremely difficult, as well as very costly, to produce many forgings by hand, if it is necessary that they be of uniform size and form. As the tendency-in all up-to-date shops is to produce dup...
-Drop-Forging Dies. Continued
Hardening When hardening drop-forging dies, it is necessary to employ some form of heating furnace that will insure heats of the proper temperature-in other words, a furnace that can be easily and ...
-Cold-Striking Dies
Many times pieces are forged which cannot be brought near enough to desired size by hammering when hot; or which must be much stiffer than hot-forging would leave them. In such cases cold-dropping or ...
-Tool Making. Gages
Gages are used in machine shops to make one part of a machine, apparatus, or tool correspond with some other part, so that when the whole is assembled, every part will go in its place with little or n...
-Plug Gages
Plug gages are those used to measure the size of a hole. To make the plug gage shown in Fig. 413, stock should be selected enough larger than finish size to allow for turning off the decarbonized s...
-Ring Gages
Ring gages are intended for use on cylindrical pieces of work. Those which are smaller than one inch in diameter are generally made of a solid piece of tool steel, or machine steel which is caseharden...
-Snap Gage
This form of gage is used more extensively than any other for outside measurements. It is extremely useful in gaging a dimension between two shoulders as shown at A, Figs. 422 and 423; in the former c...
-Male Gages For Testing Snap Gages
In order to be able to give gages the correct size, it is often necessary to make male gages, the simplest form of which is shown in Fig. 425. It is a flat piece of tool steel, made slightly small on ...
-Grinding Snap Gages
A snap gage may be held in a vise on the universal grinder when the openings are ground to size, provided it is held in such a way that it cannot spring. If sprung in any man-ner while being held, it ...
-Lapping Snap Gages
Where it is essential that gages retain their exact size for a considerable length of time, the gaging surfaces must be lapped to size after grinding. The surface left by the emery wheel, even when th...
-Adjustable Snap Gage
Snap gages that are in constant use soon wear to an extent that renders them useless, making it necessary to close them in, and grind and lap them to size again, or else to replace them with new ones....
-Receiving Gages
When it is essential that the various working points of a tool, part of a machine, or apparatus shall be in exact relation to one or more given points, a receiving gage is used. This gage, as the name...
-Shaping Gage
The gage proper may be made of one plate worked to the proper shape, but better results follow if it is made in three pieces, as shown in Fig. 440, on account of the tendency of the plate to spring wh...
-Locating Gages
This form of gage is used for determining the location of one or more holes in relation to another hole, a shoulder, a working surface, or any similar measurement. Fig. 443 illustrates a gage for s...
-Draw-In Chucks
In many shops, the bench lathe plays a very important part in the making of all kinds of small tools. The lathes, being provided with draw-in chucks, allow the extensive use of drill rod when making r...
-Tool Design. Types Of Tools
Salient Features The purpose of this article is to set forth the most modern design of tools generally used, such as jigs, fixtures, punches and dies, etc., and why they are used, together with the...
-Tools For Production Of Flatiron
Before taking up the study of the various designs of the many different tools, it is best that we first understand why certain tools are used, that is, why a jig is used instead of a punch and die, an...
-Tools For Production Of Flatiron. Part 2
Pressure Plate The pressure plate b, Fig. 2, is machine drilled in the same manner as the base, using the same jigs and fixtures where possible, even if necessary to design and make different holdi...
-Tools For Production Of Flatiron. Part 3
Finding Blank The designer must work in conjunction with the tool-makers, and the drawing dies must be made first in order to find the blank, as the shop expression is. In other words, the profile ...
-Punches And Blanking Dies
Functions A punch and die, such as shown in Fig. 16, used to punch out from sheet stock the initial plain blank in Fig. 17, is called a blanking die. The plain blanking die has been elaborated upon...
-Drawing And Forming Dies
Simple Drawing Die Any type of die that performs a drawing operation is referred to as a drawing die, regardless of its construction. Fig. 25 shows a drawing punch and die in its simplest form, pro...
-Drawing And Forming Dies. Continued
Deep Drawing Die The term deep drawing is applied to dies that are employed to produce long shells or deep cups, such as that in Fig. 37. These dies might properly be classed as redrawing dies. It ...
-Jigs And Fixtures
Purposes The term jig is applied to a device designed to hold work while being machined, and to contain guides to govern the cutting tools. Jigs are divided into many classes, such as grinding, bor...
-Tool Design. Gages
Classification And Usage Gages are classed as ring, plug, snap, depth, male and female profile, receiving, and thread gages. Limit Gage The close limits to which many products are made to ins...
-Successful Designing
Problem Of Sequence Of Operations The economical manufacture of a product does not depend solely upon the proper design of tools; the sequence of operations through which the product passes also pl...
-Successful Designing. Continued
Method Of Machining Having decided to hold the body, in in Fig. 94, one must go still further, for the methods that might be employed in machining the two bores could produce inaccurate alignment. ...
-Review Questions On The Subject Of Tool-Making and Tool-Design
On The Subject Of Tool-Making Part I 1. Give the meaning of approximate and precise measurements. Give examples and reasons for employing either method when doing the individual piece of work. 2...









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