This section is from the book "Modern Shop Practice", by Howard Monroe Raymond. Also available from Amazon: Modern Shop Practice.

A surface may be considered as formed by the motion of a line. Any length of line moved side-wise in any direction will form a surface, of a width equal to the length of the line, and of a length equal to the distance over which the line is moved. There are two different classes of surfaces; namely, those formed by a moving straight line, and those formed by a moving curved line.

In some construction work, patterns of different faces or of the whole surface must be made; in stone cutting, for example, there must be a pattern giving the shape of any irregular surface, and in sheet-metal work a pattern must be made such that, when a sheet is cut, it can be so formed that it will be of the same shape as the original object.

Fig. 142. Hyperbola - Section from a Cone.

This pattern making, or the laying out of a complete surface on one plane, is called the development of the surface. Any surface which can be smoothly wrapped about by a sheet of paper, can be developed. Figures made up of planes and single curved surfaces only would be of this nature. Double curved surfaces and warped surfaces cannot be developed, and patterns of such surfaces, when desired, must be made by an approximate method which requires two or more pieces to make the complete pattern.

Fig. 143. Development of a Right Cylinder Rolled Out on a Plane.

Fig. 144. Development of a Right Cone Rolled Out on a Plane.

By finding the true size of all the faces of an object made up of planes, and joining them in order at their common edges, the developed surface will be formed. The best way to do this is to find the true length of the edges of the object.

In Fig. 143 is represented a right cylinder rolling on a plane. The development is formed by one complete revolution of the cylinder and is a rectangle, the width being equal to the height of the cylinder and the length to the circumference.

In Fig. 144 is represented a right cone rolling out its development, which is a sector of a circle. The arc equals the circumference of the circle forming the base of the cone, and the radius equals the slant height.

The projections of any object must be drawn before the development can be made, but it is necessary only to draw such views as are required for finding the lengths of elements, and true sizes of cut surfaces.

In order to find the development of the rectangular prism in Fig. 145, the back face, 1-2-7-6, is supposed to be placed in contact with some plane, then the prism turned on the edge 2-7 until the side 2-3-8-7 is in contact with the same plane, and this process continued until all four faces have been placed on the same plane. The rectangles 1-2-3-4 and 6-7-8-5 are for the top and bottom, respectively. The development then is the exact size and shape of a covering for the prism. If a rectangular hole is cut through the prism, the openings in the front and back faces will be shown in the development in the centers of the two broad faces.

Fig. 145. Development of Hollow Rectangular Prism.

The development of a right prism, then, consists of as many rectangles joined together as the prism has sides, these rectangles being the exact size of the faces of the prism, and in addition two polygons the exact size of the bases. It will be found helpful in developing a solid to number or letter all of the corners on the projections, then designate each face when developed in the same way as in the figure.

If a cone be placed on its side on a plane surface, one element will rest on the surface. If now the cone be rolled on the plane, the vertex remaining stationary until the same element is in contact again, the space rolled over will represent the development of the convex surface of the cone. Fig. 146 is a cone cut by a plane parallel to the base. In Fig. 147, let the vertex of the cone be placed at F, and one element of the cone coincide with VF1. The length of this element is taken from the elevation, Fig. 146, of either contour element. All of the elements of the cone are of the same length, so that when the cone is rolled, each point of the base as it touches the plane will be at the same distance from the vertex. From this it follows that in the development of the base, the circumference will become the arc of a circle of radius equal to the length of an element, and of a length equal to the distance around the base. To find this length divide the circumference of the base in the plan into any number of equal parts, say twelve, and lay off twelve such spaces, 1......13 along an arc drawn with radius equal to V1; join 1 and 13 with V, and the resulting sector is the development of the cone from vertex to base. In order to represent on the development the circle cut by the section plane D F, draw, from the vertex V as a center and with VF as a radius, the arc FC. The development of the frustum of the cone will be a portion of a circular ring. This of course does not include the development of the bases, which would be simply two circles the same sizes as shown in plan.

Fig. 146. Plan and Elevation of Cone.

Fig. 147. Development of Cone.

Fig. 148. Plan and Elevation of Triangular Pyramid.

Fig. 149. Development of Triangular Pyramid.

Fig. 148 represents the plan and elevation of a regular triangular pyramid, and Fig. 149 its development. If face C is placed on the plane its true size will be shown in the development. The true length of the base of triangle C is shown in the plan. As the slanting edges, however, are not parallel to the vertical, their true length is not shown in elevation but must be obtained by the method given on page 16, as indicated in Fig. 148. The triangle may now be drawn in its full size at C in the development, and as the pyramid is regular, two other equal triangles, D and E, may be drawn to represent the other sides. These, together with the base F, constitute the complete development.

If a truncated circular cylinder is to be developed, or rolled upon a plane, the elements, being parallel, will appear as parallel lines, and the base line being perpendicular to the elements, will appear as a straight line of length equal to the circumference of the base. The base of the cylinder in Fig. 150 is divided into twelve equal parts, 1, 2, 3, etc., and commencing at point 1 on the development, these twelve equal spaces are laid off along the straight line, giving the total width.

Fig. 150. Projections and Development of Truncated Cylinder.

Draw in elevation the elements corresponding to the various divisions of the base, and note the points where they intersect the oblique plane. As the cylinder is rolled beginning at point 1, the successive elements, 1, 12, 11, etc., will appear at equal distances apart, and equal in length to the lengths of the same elements in elevation. Thus point number 10 on the development is found by projecting horizontally across from 10 in elevation. It will be seen that the curve formed is symmetrical, the half on the left of 7 being similar to that on the right. The development of any similar surface may be found in the same manner.

The principle of cylinder development is used in laying out elbow joints, pipe ends cut off obliquely, etc. In Fig. 151 is shown plan and elevation of a three-piece elbow and collar, and developments of the four pieces. In order to construct the various parts making up the joint, it is necessary to know what shape and size must be marked out on the flat sheet metal so that when cut out and rolled up the three pieces will form cylinders with the ends fitting together as required. Knowing the kind of elbow desired, first draw the plan and elevation, and from these make the developments. Let the lengths of the three pieces A, B, and C be the same on the upper outside contour of the elbow, the piece B at an angle of 45 degrees; the joint between A and B bisects the angle between the two lengths, and in the same way the joint between B and C. The lengths A and C will then be the same and one pattern will answer for both. The development of A is made exactly as just explained for Fig. 150, and this is also the development of C

Fig. 151. Plan, Elevation, and Development of Three-Piece Elbow and Collar.

It should be borne in mind that in developing a cylinder the base must always be at right angles to the elements, and if the cylinder as given does not have such a base, it becomes necessary to cut the cylinder by a plane perpendicular to the elements, and use the intersection as a base. This point must be clearly understood in order to proceed intelligently. A section at right angles to the elements is the only section which will unroll in a straight line, and is, therefore, the section from which the other sections must be developed. As B, Fig. 151, has neither end at right angles to its length, the plane X is drawn at the middle and perpendicular to the length. B has the same diameter as C and A, so the section cut by X will be a circle of the same diameter as the base of A, and is shown in the development at X.

The elements on B are drawn from the points where the elements on the elevation of A meet the joint between A and B, and are equally spaced as shown on the plan of A. Commencing with the left-hand element in B, the length of the upper element between X and the top corner of the elbow is laid off above X, giving the first point in the development of the end of B fitting with C. The lengths of the other elements in the elevation of B are measured in the same way and laid off from X. The development of the other end of the piece B is laid off below X, using the same distances, since X is half way between the ends. The development of the collar is simply the development of the frustum of a cone, which has already been explained, Fig. 147. The joint between B and C is shown in plan as an ellipse, the construction of which the student should be able to understand from a study of the figure.

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